Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
The study of the influences of leader-member exchange on teacher turnover intention: teacher job satisfaction as a mediator
Chen, Mei Hua
Wu, Cheng Ta
Chen, Mei Hua
teacher turnover intention
teacher job satisfaction
|Issue Date:||2012-04-17 09:29:10 (UTC+8)|
This study aims to investigate the current development of the junior high school leader-member exchange, teacher job satisfaction, and teacher turnover intention in Taoyuan County, and to discuss the influ- ence of leader-member exchange and teacher job satisfaction on teacher turnover intention and to test whether teacher job satisfaction is a signi- ficant mediator or not.
The research process combines literature review and questionnaire method. Teachers in Taoyuan County public schools are the main survey subjects. Totally 450 questionnaires were distributed to schools, and 383 are valid, which the amount of usefulness is around 85.11%. The data is analyzed through the statistics method of factor analysis, reliability analy- sis, descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product- moment correlation coefficient, multiple stepwise regression analysis and stepwise heirarchical regression analysis.
The findings of the study are follows:
1. Teachers in Taoyuan County public schools show median level of perception in leader-member exchange while “affect” is the highest, and “contribution” is the lowest.
2. Teachers in Taoyuan County public schools show median level of perception in teacher job satisfaction while “self-actualization” is the highest, and “work intensity/load” is the lowest.
3. Teachers in Taoyuan County public schools show low level of perception in teacher turnover intention.
4. Teachers with different background show different opinions in leader-member exchange, teacher job satisfaction, and teacher turnover intention.
5. The relations among leader-member exchange, teacher job satisfaction, and teacher turnover intention are significant.
6. Leader-member exchange and teacher job satisfaction show significant predictability to teacher turnover intention while “colleague relationship” is the highest.
7. Teacher job satisfaction functions as a significant mediator between leader-member exchange and teacher turnover intention.
According to the above conclusions, the research proposed relevant suggestions to be referenced by education administrative organizations, junior high school principals and teachers, and future researches.
Abelson, M.A. (1993). Turnover cultures. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 11, 339-376.
Acker, G. (2004). The effect of organizational conditions (role conflict, role ambiguity, opportunities for professional development, and social support) on job satisfaction and intention to leave among social workers in mental health care. Community Mental Health Journal, 40(1), 65-73.
Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Agho, A., Mueller, C., & Price, J. (1993). Determinants of employee satisfaction: An empirical test of a causal model. Human Relations, 46(8), 1007-1027.
Ali, N. (2008). Factors affecting overall job satisfaction and turnover intention. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 2(2), 239-252.
Allen, D. G., Shore, L. M., Griffeth, R. W., (2003). The role of perceived organizational support and supportive human resources practices in the turnover process. Journal of Management, 29, 99-118.
Alliance for Excellent Education. (2008). What keeps good teachers in the classroom? Understanding and reducing teacher turnover. Retrieved March 5, 2011, from http://www.all4ed.org/files/TeachTurn.pdf
Anderson, J. C., & Milkovich, G. T. (1980). Propensity to leave: A preliminary examination of March and Simon's model. Relations Industrilles, 35, 279-292.
Arthur, W., Bell, S., Doverspike, D., & Villado, A. (2006). The use of person-organization fit in employment decision making: An assessment of its criterion related validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 786-801.
Ayan, S., & Kocacik, F. (2010). The relation between the level of job satisfaction and types of personality in high school teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 27-41.
Ballinger, G. A., Lehman, D. W., & Schoorman, F. D. (2010). Leader- member exchange and turnover before and after succession events. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 113, 25-36.
Bane, T. Y. (2006). Job satisfaction among professional middle school counselors in Virginia. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986), The moderator- mediator variable distinction in socialpsychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
Bauer, T. N., Erdogan, B., Liden, R. C., & Wayne, S. J. (2006). A longitudinal study of the moderating role of extraversion: Leader-member exchange, performance, and turnover during new executive development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 298-310.
Barrick, M. K., & Mount, M. K. (1996). Effects of impression management and self-deception on the predictive validity of personality constructs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 261-272.
Bernerth, J. B., Armenakis, A. A., Field, H. S., Giles, W. F., & Walker, H. J. (2007). Is personality associated with perceptions of LMX? An empirical study. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 28(7), 613-631.
Billingsley, B. S. (1993). Teacher retention and attrition in special and general education: A critical review of the literature. The Journal of Special Education, 27, 137-174.
Bingham, J.E. (1996). The determinants and implications of teacher job satisfaction (stress). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bloom, M., & Michel, J. G. (2002). The relationship among organizational context, pay dispersion and managerial turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 33-42.
Boe, E. E., Bobbit, S. A, Cook, L.H., Whitener, S. D., & Weber, A.L. (1997). Why didst thou go? Predictors of retention, transfer and attrition of special and general education teachers from a national perspective. Journal of Special Education, 30, 390-411.
Boe, E. E., Cook, L. H., & Sunderland, R. J. (2008). Teacher turnover: Examining exit attrition, teaching area transfer, and school migration. Exceptional Children, 75(1), 7-31.
Bogler, R. (2001). The influence of leadership style on teacher job satisfaction. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37, 662-683.
Bogler, R. (2002). Two profiles of schoolteachers: A discriminant analysis of job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 665-673.
Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 307-311.
Bryk, A.S. & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Burg, K. L. (1991). Aphenomenological study of the career satisfaction of four successful. Umpulished doctoral dissertation, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.
Chapman, D. W. (1983). A model of the influences on teacher retention. Journal of Teacher Education, 34, 43-49.
Chen, L. -Y. (2004). Examining the effect of organization culture and leadership behaviors on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job performance at small and middle-sized firms of Taiwan. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), 432-438.
Chen, W. -Q. (2007). The structure of secondary schoolteacher job satisfaction and its relationship with attrition and work enthusiasm. Chinese Education and Society, 40(5), 17-31.
Chen, J. -J. (2010). Chinese middle school teacher job satisfaction and its relationships with teacher moving. Asia Paciﬁc Education Review, 11, 263-272.
Chung, J. -Y., Jung, C. -S., Kyle, G .T., & Petrick, J. F. (2010). Servant leadership and procedural justice in the U.S. national park service: The antecedents of job satisfaction. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 28(3), 1-15.
Clemens, E.V., Milsom, A., & Cashwell, C. S. (2009). Using leader- member exchange theory to examine principal-school counselor relationships, school counselors' roles, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Professional School Counseling, 13, 75-86.
Cockburn, D., & Haydn, T. (2004). Recruiting and retaining teachers: Understading why teachers teach. London: Routledge Falmer.
Coomber, B., & Barriball, K. L. (2007). Impact of job satisfaction components on intent to leave and turnover for hospital-based nurses: A review of the research literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44, 297-314.
Cranny. C. J., Smith, P .C., & Stone, E. F. (1992). Job satisfaction: How people feel about their jobs and how it affects their performance. Lexington Books: New York.
Crossman, A., & Harris, P. (2006). Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 34(1), 29-46.
Culbertson, S. S., Huffman, A. H., & Alden-Anderson, R. (2010). Leader-member exchange and work-family interactions: The mediating role of self-reported challenge- and hindrance-related stress. The Journal of Psychology, 144(1), 15-36.
DeConinck, J. B. (2009). The effect of leader-member exchange on turnover among retail buyers. Journal of Business Research, 62, 1081-1086.
De Moura, G. R., Abrams, D., Retter, C., Gunnarsdottir, S., & Ando, K. (2009). Identification as an organizational anchor: How identification and job satisfaction combine to predict turnover intention. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39(4), 540-557.
Dienesch, R. M., & Liden, R. C. (1986). Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618-634.
Dockery, T. M., & Steiner, D. D. (1990). The role of the initial interaction in leader-member exchange. Group & Organization Studies,15, 395-413.
Drummond, R. J., & Stoddard, A. (1991). Job satisfaction and work values. Psychological Reports, 69, 1116-1118.
Duchon, D., Green, S., & Taber, T. (1986). Vertical dyad linkage: A longitudinal assessment of antecedents, measure and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 56-60.
Duraisingam, V., Pidd, K., & Roche, A. M. (2009). The impact of work stress and job satisfaction on turnover intentions: A study of Australian specialist alcohol and other drug workers. Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 16(3), 217-231.
Egan, T. M., Yang, B. -Y., & Bartlett, K. R. (2004). The effects of organizational learning culture and job satisfaction on motivation to transfer learning and turnover intention. Human Resource Development Quaterly, 15(3), 279-301.
Erdogan, B., Liden, R. C., & Kraimer, M. L. (2006). Justice and leader-member exchange: The moderating role of organizational culture. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 395-406.
Erdogan, B., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2004). Work value congruence and intrinsic career success: The compensatory roles of leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support. Personnel Psychology, 57, 305-332.
Falch, T., & Strøm, B. (2005). Teacher turnover and non-pecuniary factors. Education of Economics Review, 24(6), 611-631.
Feng, B. -L. (2007). A study of teacher job satisfaction and factors that influence it. Chinese Education and Society, 40(5), 47-64.
George, A. P., & Joji, A. N. (2011). Turnover intentions: perspectives of IT professionals in Kerala. The IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(1), 18-41.
Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-
member exchange Theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 827-844.
Ghiselli, E. E., Campbell, J. P., & Zedeck, S. (1981). Measurement theory for the Behavioral sciences. San Franciso, CA: Freeman.
Glebbeek, A., & Bax, E. (2004). Is high employee turnover really harmful? An empirical test using company records. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 277-286.
Golden, T. D., & Veiga, J. F. (2008). The impact of superior–subordinate relationships on the commitment, job satisfaction, and performance of virtual workers. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 77-88.
Gould-Williams, J. (2007). HR practices, organizational climate and employee outcomes: Evaluating social exchange relationships in local government. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(9), 1627-1647.
Graen, G. B. (1976). Role-making processes within complex organizations. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1201-1245). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Graen, G., Cashman, J. F., Ginsburg, S., & Schiemann, W. (1977). Effects of linking pin quality on the quality of working life of lower participants. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, 491-504.
Graen G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. Research in Organizational Performance, 30, 109-131.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.
Griffeth, R.W., Hon, P.W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderate test, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26(3), 463-488.
Griffin, D. K. (2010). A survey of Bahamian and Jamaican teachers’ level of motivation and job satisfaction. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 16, 56-76.
Gruneburg, M. M. (1979). Understanding job satisfaction. London: Macmillan.
Guin, K. (2004). Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(42), 1-30.
Han, G. -H. H., & Jekel, M. (2011). The mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions. Journal of Nursing Management, 19, 41-49.
Harris, R. B., Harris, K. J., & Harvey, P. (2008). An examination of the impact of supervisor on the relationship between job strains and turnover intention for computer workers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(8), 2108-2131.
Harris, K. J., & Kacmar, K. M. (2006). Too much of a good thing: The curvilinear effect of leader-member exchange on stress. The Journal of Social Psychology,146(1), 65-80.
Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., & Witt, L. A. (2005). An examination of the curvilinear relationship between leader–member exchange and intent to turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 363-378.
Herzberg, F. (1966). The work and the nature of man. Cleveland, OH: The World Publishing Company.
Hess, C. E. (2007). The moderating effects of teacher self-efficacy on the relationship between job satisfaction and intent to turnover. Unpublished master’s thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Hinks, T. (2010). Job satisfaction and employment equity in South Africa. Journal of African Economies, 19(2), 237-255.
Hollander, E. P. (1980). Leadership and social exchange processes. In K. J. Gergen, M. S. Greenberg, & R. H. Willis (Eds.), Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research (pp. 103-118). New York: Plenum Press.
Holtom, B. C., Mitchell T. R., Lee, T. W., & Eberly, M. B. (2008). Turnover and retention research: A glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future. The Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 231-274.
Homans, G. (1961). Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Huning, T. M., & Thomson, N. F. (2010). The impact of performance attributions and job satisfaction on turnover intentions. Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 15(1), 27-31.
Houchins, D. E., Shippen, M. E., McKeand, K., Viel-Ruma, K., Jolivette, K., & Guarino, A. J. (2010). Juvenile justice teachers’ job satisfaction: A comparison of teachers in three states. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(4), 623-646.
House, R. J., & Javidan, M. 2004. Overview of GLOBE. In R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, & V. Gupta (Eds.), Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies (pp. 9-28). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Howard, J. L., & Frick, D. D. (1996). The effects of organizational restructure on employee satisfaction. Group and Organizational Management, 21(3), 278-303.
Huysman, J. T. (2008). Rural teacher satisfaction: An analysis of beliefs and attitudes of rural teachers’ job satisfaction. The Rural Educator, 29(2), 31-38.
Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19, 51-89.
Lester, P. E. (1987). Development and factor analysis of the teacher job satisfaction questionnaire (TJSQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47(1), 223-233.
Li, S. D. (2011). Equation modeling analyses in secondary data testing mediation using multiple regression and structural. Evaluation Review, 35(3), 240-268.
Li, C. -K., & Hung, C. -H. (2009). The influence of transformational leadership on workplace relationships and job performance. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(8), 1129-1142.
Liu, X. -F. S., & Ramsey, J. (2008). Teachers’ job satisfaction: Analyses of the Teacher Follow-up Survey in the United States for 2000-2001. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1173-1184.
Lo, M. -C., Ramayah, T., Min, H. -W., & Songan, P. (2010). The relationship between leadership styles and organizational commitment in Malaysia: Role of leader-member exchange. Asia Paciﬁc Business Review, 16(1-2), 79-103.
Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Behavior. (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago, IL: Rand Mc Nally.
Loeb, S., Darling-Hammond, L. & Luczak, J. (2005). How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 80(3), 44-70.
Jackson, S. E., Schwab, R. L., & Schuler, R. S. (1986). Toward an understanding of the burnout phenomenon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 630-640.
Joo, B. -K. (2010). Organizational commitment for knowledge workers: The roles of perceived organizational learning culture, leader- member exchange quality, and turnover intention. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(1), 69-85.
Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376-407.
Kandan, P. a/l, & Ali, I. B. (2010). A correlation study of leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior in a public sector organization. Journal of Global Business and Economics,1(1), 62-78.
Kang, D., & Stewart, J. (2007). Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership and HRD: Development of units of theory and laws of interaction. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,28, 531-551.
Keesler, V., & Schneider, B. (2010, March). Estimating cause: Teacher turnover and school effectiveness in Michigan. Paper presented at the meeting of 2010 SREE Conference, Washington, D.C.
Kim, I., & Loadman, W. E. (1994). Predicting teacher job satisfaction (ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. Ed 383707).
Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 741-756.
Korunka, C., Scharitzer, D., Carayon, P., & Sainfort, P. (2003). Employee strain and job satisfaction related to an implementation of quality in a public service organization: A longitudinal study. Work & stress, 17(1), 52-72.
Liao, L. -F. (2008). Knowledge-sharing in R&D departments a social power and social exchange theory perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(10), 1881-1895.
Liden, R.C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader- member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24(1), 43-72.
Liden, R.C., & Parsons, C.K. (1989). Understanding interpersonal behavior in the employment interview: A reciprocal interaction analysis. In R.W. Eder & G. R. Ferris (Eds.), The employment interview: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 219-232). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Liden, R.C., Sparrowe, R.T., & Wayne, S.J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 15, 47-119.
Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 662-674.
Liu, X. S., & Ramsey, J. (2008). Teachers’ job satisfaction: Analyses of the Teacher Follow-Up Survey in the United States for 2000–2001. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1173-1184.
Loi, R., Mao, Y., & Ngo, H., (2009). Linking leader-member exchange and employee work outcomes: The mediating role of organizational social and economic exchange. Management and Organization Review,5(3), 401-422.
Ma, L., & Qu, Q. (2010). Differentiation in leader-member exchange: A hierarchical linear modeling approach. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 733-744.
McElroy, J., Morrow, P., & Rude, S. (2001). Turnover and organizational performance: A comparative analysis of the effects of voluntary, involuntary, and reduction-in-force turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1294-1299.
McNall, L. A., Masuda, A. D., & Nicklin, J. M. (2010). Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work-to-family enrichment. The Journal of Psychology, 144(1), 61-81.
McPherson, J. M., Popielarz, P. A., & Drobnic, S. (1992). Social networks and organizational dynamics. American Sociological Review, 57, 153-170.
March, J.G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.
Milanowski, A. (2000). School based performance award programs and teacher motivation. Journal of Educational Finance, 25(4), 517-544.
Mobley, W. H. (1977). Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 237-240.
Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 493-522.
Mowday, R. T. (1983). Equity theory predictions of behavior in organizations. In R. M. Steers, & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Motivation and work behavior (3rd ed.) (pp. 91-113). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Mowday, R.T, Porter, L., & Steers, R.M. (1982): Effective behaviour in organization. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 143-161.
Mueller, B. H., & Lee, J. (2002). Leader-member exchange and organizational communication satisfaction in multiple context. Journal of Business Communication, 39, 220-244.
Murphy, S. M., Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C., & Erdogan, B. (2003). Understanding social loafing: The role of justice perceptions and exchange relationships. Human Relations,56, 61-84.
Nishii, L. H., & Mayer, D. M. (2009). Do inclusive leaders help to reduce turnover in diverse groups? The moderating role of leader-member exchange in the diversity to turnover relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1412-1426.
Ololube, N.P. (2006). Teachers job satisfaction and motivation for school effectiveness: An assessment. Essays In Education, 18(9). Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED496539.pdf
Oranje, A. H. (2001). Teacher shortages, teacher job satisfaction, and professionalism: Teacher assistants in Dutch secondary schools. Retrieved April 3, 2011 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED453194
Pearson, C. A. (1991). An assessment of extrinsic feedback on participation, role perceptions, motivation, and job satisfaction in a self-managed system for monitoring group achievement. Human Relations, 44(5), 517-537.
Perrachione, B. A., Rosser, V. J., & Peterson, G. J. (2008). Why do they stay? Elementary teachers’ perceptions of job satisfaction and retention. The Professional Educator, 32(2), 25-41.
Pfeffer, J., & Davis-Blake, D. (1992). Salary dispersion, location in the salary distribution, and turnover among college administrators. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 45, 753-763.
Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1973). Organizational, work, and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 151-176.
Price, J. L. (1977). The study of turnover. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Price, J. L. (2001). Reflections on the determinants of voluntary turnover. International Journal of Manpower, 22, 600-624.
Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1981). A causal model of turnover for nurses. Academy of Management Journal, 24(3), 543-565.
Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1986). Absenteeism and turnover of hospital employees. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Purkey, S.C., & Smith, M.S. (1983). Effective school: A review. Elementary School Journal, 83, 427-452.
Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2006). Perceptions of organizational change: A stress and coping perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1154-1162.
Rhoades, L, & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology,87, 698-714.
Richardson, W., von Kirchenheim, N., & Richardson, C. (2006). Teachers and their international relocation: The effect of self-esteem and pay satisfaction on adjustment and outcome variables. International Education Journal, 7(7), 883-894.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2008). Essentials of Organizational Behavior. New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Education.
Schnake, M. E. (1983). An empirical assessment of the effects of affective response in the measurement of organizational climate. Personnel Psychology, 36,791-807.
Schyns, B., & Croon, M. A. (2006). A model of task demands, social structure, and leader-member exchange and their relationship to job satisfaction. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(4), 602-615.
Schyns, B., & Day, D. (2010). Critique and review of leader-member exchange theory: Issues of agreement, consensus, and excellence. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19(1), 1-29.
Schyns, B., Torka, N., & Gössling, T. (2007). Turnover intention and preparedness for change: Exploring leader-member exchange and occupational self-efﬁcacy as antecedents of two employability predictors. Career Development International, 12(7), 660-679.
Shahzad, K., Hussain, S., Bashir, S., Chishti, A. F., & Nasir, Z. M. (2011). Organizational environment, job satisfaction and career growth opportunities: A link to employee turnover intentions in public sector of pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(9), 45-56.
Sharma, R. D., & Jyoti, J. (2009). Job satisfaction of university teachers. Journal of Services Research, 9(2), 51-80.
Siu, O. L. (2002). Predictors of job satisfaction and absenteeism in two samples of Hong Kong nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40, 218-229.
Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., & Hulin, C. L. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Somech, A. (2010). Participative decision making in schools: A mediating-moderating analytical framework for understanding school and teacher outcomes. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(2), 174-209.
Song, H. (2007). Literature review of teacher job satisfaction. Chinese Education and Society, 40(5), 11-16.
Song, J. H., Martens, J., McCharen, B., & Ausburn, L. J. (2010). The complex structure of teacher turnover intention: Multi-structural relationships among organizational culture, job autonomy, and turnover intention in CTE teachers. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.public.iastate.edu/~laanan/ACTER/2010/discussants/Discussant_Morgan.Lewis.pdf
Sparrowe, R. T., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Process and structure in leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 522-552.
Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 693-713.
Spector, P. E. (2000). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Steers, R. M., & Mowday, R. T. (1981). Employee turnover and post- decision justification. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, (Vol. 3 pp. 235-282). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Tekleab, A. G., & Chiaburu, D. S. (2011). Social exchange: Empirical examination of form and focus. Journal of Business Research, 64, 460-466.
Tekleab, A. G., Takeuchi, R., & Taylor, M. S. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational. Justice, social exchange, and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal,48, 146-157.
Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytical findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259-295.
Theobald, N.D., & Michael, R.S. (2001). Teacher Turnover in the Midwest: Who Stays, Leaves, and Moves? (Report No. NCREL-10). Naperville, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 482905)
Thoresen, C. J., Kaplan, S. A., & Barsky, A. P. (2003). The affective underpinnings of job perceptions and attitudes: A meta-analytic review and integration. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 914-945.
Townsend, A. M. (2000). An exploratory study of administrative workers in the arts: Are they really different from for-profit workers? Public Personnel Management, 29, 423-434.
Tsui, A.S., & Gutek, B.A. (1999). Demographic differences in organizations: Current research and future directions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Ugrin, J. C., Odum, M. D., & Pearson, J. M. (2008). Exploring the importance of mentoring for new scholars: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Information Systems Education,19(3), 343- 350.
Uhl-Bien, M. (2006). Relational leadership theory: Exploring the social processes of leadership and organizing. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 654-676.
Uhl-Bien, M., & Maslyn, J. M. (2003). Reciprocity in manager- subordinate relationships: Components, configurations, and outcomes. Journal of Management,29(4), 511-532.
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York, NY: Wiley.
Vroom, V. H. (1982). Work and Motivation. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.
Walster, E., Traupman, S., & Walster, G. (1978). Equity and extramarital sex. The Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 127-142.
Wang, C. Y. -P., Chen, M. -H., Hyde, B., & Hsieh, L. (2010). Chinese employees’ work values and turnover intentions in multinational companies: The mediating effect of pay satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality,38(7), 871-894.
Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D., & Chen, Z. X. (2005). Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal,48(3), 420-432.
Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., Bommer, W. H., & Tetrick , L. E. (2002). The role of fair treatment and rewards in perceptions of organizational support and leader-member exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 590-598.
Werbel, J. D., & Henriques, P. L. (2009). Different views of trust and relational leadership: Supervisor and subordinate perspectives, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(7-8), 780-796.
Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, 22, 1-119.
Wikaningrum, T. (2007). Coworker exchange, leader-member exchange, and work attitudes: A study of coworker dyads. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 9, 187-215.
Witt, L. A., & Nye, L. G. (1992). Gender and the relationship between perceived fairness of pay or promotion and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 910-917.
Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (1992). The effect of turnover on work satisfaction and mental health: Support for a situational perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 603-615.
Yukl, G., & Michel, J. (2006). Proactive influence tactics and leader-member exchange. In C. A. Schriesheim & L. Neider (Eds.), Power and influence in organizations: Research in Management (pp. 87-103). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Zembylas, M., & Papanastasiou, E. (2006, October). Teacher job satisfaction in Cyprus: The results of a mixed-methods approach. Paper presented at the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration and Management conference, Nicosia, Cyprus.
Zhou, X., & Schriesheim, C. A. (2008). Supervisor-subordinate convergence in descriptions of leader-member exchange (LMX) quality: Review and testable propositions. Leadership Quarterly, 20, 920-932.
|Appears in Collections:||[Graduate Institute of Educational Administration and Policy ] Theses|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.