Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
The improvement of coherence in EFL low achievers' writing through the instruction of cohesive devices and thematic progression
Lin, Su Yu
Yu, Ming Chung
Lin, Su Yu
|Issue Date:||2012-04-17 09:31:09 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||英文作文教學在英語學習上是不可或缺的一環，而實際上在台灣，英文作文教學仍是透過分析文法和句型來進行的，但這樣的方式忽略了英文寫作能夠成功的主要關鍵——連貫性。由於連貫性的晦澀難解，教師與學生皆會認為在教授和學習寫出有連貫性的文章是很複雜的。本文藉由教導學生如何於寫作時運用連繫功能詞(cohesive devices)和主題推進(thematic progression)兩種策略來探究作文中的連貫性，以研究其增進高中生英文寫作表現的可能性。本研究在不影響正常教學進度的前提下進行，研究者的39位臺北市高二學生首先接受如何分析課本文章連貫性的指導，並接著應用和檢視連繫功能詞以及主題推進於他們的寫作中。其中有兩位低成就者進一步地被挑選出來，藉由寫作會談(writing conference)以瞭解受試者在寫作時，如何利用以上兩種連貫性的策略於其英文寫作中；同時也透過訪談和日記撰寫的方式，來探討學生的學習連貫性策略的歷程。|
As an indispensable element in English learning, writing instruction in Taiwan actually has been given through the analysis of grammar and sentence patterns. This however ignores another primary key to successful writing—coherence. Due to its obscurity, teachers and students both find it complicated to teach and acquire the ability to organize a written text logically and coherently. The current study investigated the possibility to improve the high school students’ writing by instructing them how to apply the coherence strategies to their writing—cohesive devices (CD) and thematic progression (TP). In this study, with the teaching schedule unaffected, the researcher’s 39 second-graders in one Taipei senior high school were first taught how to analyze the coherence of the reading passages in the textbooks. Then they were required to apply and examine CD and TP when writing. Two low achievers of these students were further selected to investigate their writing development by examining their written texts with CD and TP applied in writing conferences, having interviews with the researcher and keeping journals between classes and writing conferences.
Concluded from the quantitative and qualitative data collected, the results revealed that the two low-proficiency students were able to get high grades in the holistic writing performance and coherence of writing. They were meanwhile found to be able to apply the same categories of CD (reference, conjunction and reiteration) and types of TP (simple linear TP type and TP with a constant theme) as the ones used by the high-proficiency learners in previous studies. During the five-month study, the participants also cultivated the ability to focus more on content level and to revise properly in their writing with the help of CD and TP. Besides, since the participants held positive attitudes toward the learning of CD and TP, the researcher recommends that the combination of CD and TP should be integrated into the writing instruction in current normal English writing class in Taiwan to help students comprehend the abstract coherence and to improve their writing by analyzing CD and TP in the written texts.
|Reference:||Almaden, D. O. (2006). An analysis of the topical structure of paragraphs written by Filipino students. The Asia-Pacific Education Research, 15(1), 127-153.|
Alonso , B. I., & A. McCabe (2003). Improving text flow in ESL learner compositions. The Internet TESL Journal, IX(2). Retrieved February 11, 2010, from: http:// iteslj. org/ Articles/ Alonso- ImprovingFlow.html.
Alonso B. I., & A. McCabe (1998a) Theme-Rheme patterns in L2 writing. Didáctica (Lengua y Literatura) , 10, 13-31.
Alonso, B. I., & A. McCabe (1998b) Looking for tools to assess ESL student compositions at the discourse level: the Theme/Rheme notion, GRETA, Journal for English Teachers, 6(2), 52-57.
Applebee, A. N. (1986). Problems in process approaches: Toward a re- conceptualization of process instruction. In Petrosky, A. R. and Bartholomae, D. (Eds.). The teaching of writing: Eighty-fifth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, pp. 95-113.
Arbur, R. (1977). The student-teacher conference. College Composition and Communication, 28(4), 338-342.
Ash, B. H. (1983). Selected effects of elapsed time and grade level on the revisions in eighth, tenth and twelfth graders’ writing. Dissertation Abstracts, 43(12), 3830A.
Bailey K. M. & Ochsner R. (1983). A methodological review of the diary studies: Windmill tilting or social science? In Bailey K. M., Long, M. H. and Peck, H. (eds). Second Language Acquisition Studies (pp.188-198). Rowley, Mass: Newberry House.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1990). Pragmatic World in English Composition. In U. Connor & A. M. Johns (Eds.), Coherence in writing: Research and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 43-65). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
Bamberg, B. (1978). Composition instruction does not make a difference: A comparison of college freshman in regular and remedial English courses. Research of the Teaching of English, 12, 47-59.
Beach, R. (1976). Self-evaluation strategies of extensive revisers and non-revisers. College Composition and Communication, 27, 111-119.
de Beaugrand, R., & Dresseler, W. (1981). Introduction to Text Linguistics. London: Longman.
Bell, R. T. (1991). Translation and translating: Theory and practice. London: Longman.
Bereiter, C. & M. Scardamalia (1986). Research on written composition. In C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching, 778-803. New York: Macmillan.
Bereiter, C. & M. Scardamalia (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Berry, M. (1992). Bringing systems back into a discussion of theme. Plenary address to the 19th International Systematic Functional Congress, Macquarie University.
Biesenbach-Lucas, S., Meloni, C., & Weasenforth, D. (2000). Use of cohesive features in ESL students’ e-mail and word-processed texts: A comparative study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 13(3), 221-237.
Bitchener, J. (2008). Evidence in support of written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 102-118.
Bitchener, J., Young, S. & Cameron, D. (2005). The effect of different types of corrective feedback on ESL student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14, 191-205.
Bloor, M. & T. Bloor. (1992). Given and new information in the thematic organization of text: an application to the teaching of academic writing. Occasional Papers in Systemic Linguistics, 6, 33-44.
Bowen, B. A. (1993). Using conferences to support the writing process. In A. M. Penrose & B. M. Sitko (Eds.), Hearing ourselves think: Cognitive research in the college writing classroom (pp. 188-200). New York: Oxford UP.
Bracewell, R. J., Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1978). The development of audience awareness in writing. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED 154 433).
Brice, C. (1998). ESL writers’ reactions to teacher feedback: A multiple case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Perdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Bridwell, L. S. (1980). Revising strategies in twelfth grade students’ transactional writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 14, 197-222.
Brown, R. (1981). National assessments of writing ability. In C. Frederiksen & J. Dominic (Ed.), Writing: process, development and communication (pp.31-38). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Cao, Y. J. (2008). Thematic progression and writing teaching of college English. Unpublished master’s thesis. Qingdao University of Science and Technology.
Carter-Thomas, S. (2008). Teaching coherence through genre. De la France au Quebec – l'Ecriture dans tous ces etats, IUFM Poitou-Charentes : France.
Carreon, M. E. C. (2006). Unguarded patterns of thinking: Physical and topical structure analysis of student journals. The Asia-Pacific Education Research, 15(1), 155-182.
Chao, K. H. (2002). Thematic progression in the argumentative essays of EFL senior high school students. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Chengchi University.
Chen, H. M. (2002). An Analysis of Lexical Cohesion in Senior High School Student's Compositions. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Chengchi University.
Chiang, S. Y. (1999). Assessing grammatical and textual features in L2 writing samples: The case of French as a foreign language. Modern Language Journal, 83, 219-232.
Chiu, Y. (2004). Coaching a student to develop coherence based upon topical structure analysis: A case study. Journal of Language and Learning, 2(2), 154-170.
Cloran, (1995). Defining and relating text segments: Subject and theme in discourse. In: R. Hasan & P. H. Fries. (Eds.), On subject and theme: A discourse functional perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Cohen, A. D. (1987). Student processing of feedback on their compositions: Teacher and student verbal reports. In A. L. Wenden & J. Rubin (eds.), Learner Strategies in Language Learning (pp. 57-69). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Cohen, A. D. (1990). Language learning: Insights for learners, teachers, and researchers. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Cohen, A. D. (1994). Verbal reports on learning strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 678-682.
Connor, U. (1987). Research Frontiers in Writing Analysis. TESOL Quarterly, 21(4), 677-696.
Connor, U. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Connor, U., & M. Farmer. (1990). The teaching of topical structure analysis as a revision strategy for ESL writers. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 126-139). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, A. (1988). Given-new: Enhancing coherence through cohesiveness. Written Communication, 5(3), 352-367.
Crismore, A., Markkanen, R., & Steffensen, M. S. (1993). Meta-discourse in persuasive writing: A study of texts written by American and Finnish university students. Written Communication, 10, 39-71.
Crompton, P. (2004). Theme in discourse: ‘Thematic progression’ and ‘method of development’ re-evaluated. Functions of Language, 11(2), 213-249.
Crow, B. K. (1983). Topic shifts in couples’ conversations. In: R. T. Craig & K. Tracy (Eds.), Conversational coherence: Form, structure and strategy (pp. 136- 156). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Crowley, S. (1977). Components of the composing process. College Composition and Communication, 28(2), 166-169.
Cumming, A. (1985). Responding to the writing of ESL students. Highway One, 8, 58-78.
Cumming, A. (1989). Writing expertise and second-language proficiency. Language Learning, 39, 81-141.
Cumming, A. (1998). Theoretical perspective on writing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 61-78.
Cumming, A., Rebuffot, J., & Ledwell, M. (1989). Reading summarizing challenging texts in first and second languages. Reading and Writing, 1(3), 201-219.
Daneš, F. (1974). Functional sentence perspective and the organization of the text. In: F. Daneš (Ed.), Papers on functional sentence perspective (pp. 106–128). Prague/The Hague: Academia/Mouton.
Dennett, J. (1990). ESL technical writing: Process and rhetorical differences. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No, ED 322713).
van Dijk, T. A. and Kintsh, W. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension. San Diego: Academic.
van Dijk, T. A. and Kintsh, W. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85, 363-394.
Downing, A. (2001). Thematic progression as a functional resource in analyzing texts. Círculo de lingüística aplicada a la comunicación, ISSN 1576-4737, Nº. 5. Retrieved June 29, 2010, from https://sslvpn.nccu.edu.tw/info/circulo/no5/,DanaInfo=www.ucm.es+downing.htm.
Duke, C. R. (1975). The Student-Centered Conference and the Writing Process. English Journal, 64(9), 44-47.
Dumanig, F. P., Esteban, I. C., Lee, Y. P., & A. D., Gan. (2009). Topical structure analysis of American and Philippine editorials. Journal of the Advancement of Science & Arts, 1(1), 63-72.
Eggins, S. (1994). An introduction to systemic functional linguistic. London: Printer Publishers.
Elbow, P. (1981). Writing with power. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (1998). Teaching and research: Options in grammar teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 39-60.
Emig, J. (1971). The composing process of twelfth graders. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Ericsson, K.A., & Simon, H.A. (1993). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Faigley, L., Cherry, R. D., Jolliffe D. A. & Skinner A. M. (1985). Assessing writers’ knowledge of process of composing. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Faigley, L. & Witte, S. P. (1981a). Analyzing revision. College Composition and Communication, 31, 21-32.
Faigley, L. & Witte, S. P. (1981b). Coherence, Cohesion, and Writing Quality. College Composition and Communication, 32(2), 189-204.
Faigley, L., & Witte, S. (1984). Measuring the effects of revisions on text structure. In R. Beach & L. S. Bridwell (Eds.), New directionsin compositionre search (pp. 95-108). New York: Guilford Press.
Fan. Y. S. (2008). Topical structure analysis as an alternative learning strategy of coherent writing. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Tsing Hua University.
Fathman, A. K., & E. Whalley. (1990). Teacher response to student writing: Focus on form versus content. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom. (pp. 178-190). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ferris, D. (1994). Lexical and syntactic features of ESL writing by students at different levels of L2 proficiency. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 414-420.
Ferris, D. (1995a). Student reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition
classrooms, TESOL Quarterly, 29, 33-53.
Ferris, D. (1995b). Teaching ESL composition students to become independent self-editors. TESOL Journal, 4(4), 18-22.
Ferris, D. (1997). The Influence of Teacher Commentary on Student Revision. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 315-339
Ferris, D. (1999). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996). Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 1-11.
Ferris, D. (2003). Response to student writing: Implication for second language students. Mahwah: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Ferris, D. (2004). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime?). Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 49-62.
Ferris, D. (2006). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction. In K. Hyland & F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issue (pp. 81-104). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Firbas, J. (1964). On defining the theme in functional sentence analysis. In Travaux Linguistiques de Prague I, 267-279.
Firbas, J. (1974). "Some Aspects of the Czechoslovak Approach to Problems of Functional Sentence Perspective". In F. Daneš (Ed.), Papers on Functional Sentence Perspective (pp. 11-37). The Hague: Mouton.
Firbas, J. (1986). On the dynamics of written communication and in light of the theory of Functional Sentence Perspective. In C. Copper & S. Greenbaum (Eds.), Studying Writing: Linguistic Approaches (pp. 40-71). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Fitzgerald J. (1987). Research on revision in writing. Review of Educational Research, 57(4), 481-506.
Fitzgerald J. & Markham, L. (1987). Teaching children about revision in writing. Cognition and Instruction, 4(1), 3-24.
Flower, L. (1989). Problem-solving strategies for writing (3rd ed). San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32, 363-387.
Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1986). Writing research and the writer. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1106-1113.
Foreman, P. (1948). The theories of case studies. Social Forces, 26(4), 408-419.
Francis, G. (1990). Theme in the daily press. Occasional Papers in Systematic Linguistics, 4, 51-87.
Fries, P.H. (1981/1983) On the status of theme in English: arguments from discourse. Forum Linguisticum 6(1), 1-38. [Reprinted in J.S Petofi and E. Sozer (eds.) Micro and macro connexity of texts, 116-152. Hamburg: Buske.]
Fries, P. H. (1995). A personal view of theme. In M. Ghadessy (ed.), Thematic development in English texts, pp.1-19. London: Pinter.
Goldstein, L. M. & Conrad, S. M. (1990). Student Input and Negotiation of Meaning in ESL Writing Conferences. TESOL Quarterly, 24(3), 443-460.
Goldstein, L. M. & Conrad, S. M. (1999). ESL student revision after teacher written comments: Texts, contexts and individuals. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 147-180.
Gomez, A. (1994). The relevance of theme in the textual organization of BBC news reports. Word, 45(3), 293-305.
Goodin, G., & Perkins, K. (1982). Discourse analysis and the art of coherence. College English, 44, 57-63.
Hairston, M. (1982). The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the Teaching of Writing. College Composition and Communication, 33(1), 76-88.
Hajicova, E. (1994). Topic/foucs and related research. In P. A. Luelsdorff (Ed.), The Prague School of Structural and Functional Linguistics (pp. 245-275). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hall, C. (1990). Managing the complexity of revising across languages. TESOL Quarterly, 24(1), 43-60.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar (1st Edition). London: Edward Arnold.
Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. Longman Group: London.
Halliday, M.A.K. and Matthiessen C. (2004). An Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd Edition). London: Arnold.
Hao, X., & J. Sivell (2002) Integrating Reading and Writing in EFL composition in China. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 25-28.
Hasan, R. (1978). On the notion of a text. In J. S. Petöfi (ed.) Text vs. sentence. Hamburg: H. Buske.
Hasan, R. (1984). Coherence and cohesive harmony. In J. Flood (ed.), Understanding Reading Comprehension. Delaware: International Reading Association, pp. l8l-219.
Hawes, T., & S., Thomas. (1996). Rhetorical uses of theme in newspaper editorials. World Englishes, 15(2), 159-170.
Hawes, T., & S., Thomas. (1997). Problems of thematisation in student writing. RELC Journal, 28(2), 35-55.
Heuring, D. L. (1984, March). Revision strategies of ESL writers: Five case studies. Paper presented at the 18th Annual TESOL Convention, Houston, TX.
Hillocks, G., Jr. (1986). Research on written composition: New directions for teaching. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills.
Hinkel, E. (2001). Matters of cohesion in L2 academic texts. Applied Language Learning, 12(2), 111-132.
Hoenisch, S. (2009). Topical structure analysis of accomplished English prose. Unpublished master’s thesis, The City University of New York.
Hoey, M. (1983). On the surface of discourse. London, UK: George Allen and Unwin.
Hoey, M. (1991). Patterns if lexis in Text. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Horowitz, D. (1986). Process, not product: Less than meets the eye. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 141-144.
Huang, L. M., & Tang, J. C. (1997). A case study on using writing conferences and peer group review in teaching English composition in senior high school. The Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on English Teaching, pp. 263-282. Taipei: Crane.
Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for language teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hyland, K. (2003). Second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Intaraprawat, P., & Steffensen, M. S. (1995). The use of metadiscourse in good and poor ESL essays. Journal of Second Language Writing, 4(3), 253-272.
Janssen, D., van Waes, L., & van den Bergh, H. (1996). Effects of thinking aloud on writing processes. In C.M. Levy and S. Randsdell (Eds.), The Science of Writing: Theories, Methods, Individual Differences, and Applications (pp. 233-250). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
John, P. D. & Gilchrist, I. (1999). Flying solo: Understanding the post-lesson dialogue between student teacher and mentor. Mentoring & Tutoring, 7(2), 101-111.
Jones, S. (1985). Problems with monitor use in second language composing. In M. Rose (Ed.), When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies on Writers’ Block and Other Composing Problems (pp. 96-118). New York, New York: Guilford Press.
Jones, S., & Tetroe, J. (1987). Composing in a second language. In A. Matsuhashi (Ed.), Writing in Real Modeling Production Processes (pp. 34-57). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Kieras, D. (1981). Component processes in the comprehension of simple prose. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20(1), 1-23.
Knoch, U. (1997). Diagnostic writing assessment: The development and validation of a rating scale. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Auckland.
Knoch, U. (2007). Do empirically developed rating scales function differently to conventional rating scales for academic writing? Spaan Fellow Working Papers in Second or Foreign Language Assessment, 5, 1–36.
Kopple, W. J. V. (1982). Functional sentence perspective and some related recent work in discourse analysis. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Great Lakes Area Rhetoric Association.
Kopple, W. J. V. (1991). Themes, thematic progression, and some implications for understanding discourse. Written Communication, 8(3), 311-347.
Krapels, A. R. (1990). An overview of second language writing process research. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom (pp. 37-56). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Krashen, S. D. (1984). Writing: Research, theory and application. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kroll, B. (1990). What does time buy? ESL student performance on home versus class compositions. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 140-154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lan, L. M. (2008). Thematic progression and cohesive devices: An approach to English reading. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chengchi University.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. London: Longman.
Lautamatti, L. (1987). Observation in the development of the topic in simplified discourse. In U. Connor & R.B. Kaplan (Eds.), Writing across languages: Analysis of L2 text (pp. 87-114). MA: Addison-Wesley.
Lee, I. (1998). Enhancing ESL students' awareness of coherence-creating mechanisms in writing. TESL Canada Journal, 15(2), 36-49.
Lee, I. (2002). Teaching coherence to ESL students: a classroom inquiry. Journal of Second Language Writing, 11, 135-159.
Lee, I. (2008a). Students reactions to teacher feedback in two Hong Kong secondary classrooms. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 144-164.
Lee, I. (2008b). Understanding teacher’s written feedback practices in Hong Kong secondary classrooms. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 69-85.
Lee, Y. L. (2009). The Application of Communicative Dynamism and Thematic Progression Models in the Analysis of Biology-related Text. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Changhua University of Education.
Leki, I. (1991). The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college-level writing classes. Foreign Language Annuals, 24, 203-218.
Leki, I. (1992). Understanding ESL writers: A guide for teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman.
Lin, H. H. (2009). 98學年度學科能力測驗試題分析(英文考科). Retrieved April 15, 2011, from the College Entrance Examination Center.
Li, H. F. & Liu, Y. Y. (2005). Thematic Progression, Register Consistency and Text Coherence. US-China Foreign Language, 3(7), 55-58.
Li, Y. (2009). On the significance of theme and thematic progression in the development of text. Sino-US English Teaching, 6(2), 61-66.
Lin, T. L. (2000). Student revision from teacher feedback in a writing conference. Selected Papers from the Ninth International Symposium on English Teaching, pp. 448-459. Taipei: Crane.
Liu, D. (2000). Writing cohesion: Using content lexical ties in ESOL. English Teaching Forum, 38(1), 28-33.
Liu, W. T. (2009). The Combination of Topical Structure Analysis and Lexical Cohesion as a Strategy for Improving Coherence in Writing. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Tsing Hua University.
Lowenthal, D. (1980). Mixing levels of revision. Visible Language, 14(4), 383-387.
Mackay, R. (1987). Teaching the information gathering skills. In M. H. Long and J. C. Richards (Eds.), Methodology in TESOL: A book of reading (pp. 248-258). Boston, Mass: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Mathesius, V. (1975). Functional sentence analysis. In J. Vachek (Ed.), A functional analysis of present day English on a general linguistic basis, 81-85. Paris, The Hague: Mouton.
Matsuda, P.K. (2003). Second language writing in the twentieth century: A situated historical perspective. In Barbra K. (ed.). Exploring the dynamics of second language writing (pp. 15-34). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Matsumura, L. C., Patthey-Chavez, G. G., Valdés R., & Garnier, H. (2002). Teacher feedback, writing assignment quality, and third-grade students’ revision in lower and higher-achieving urban schools. Elementary School Journal, 103, 1-25.
Mauranen, A. (1996). Discourse competence—Evidence from thematic development in native and non-native texts. In E. Ventola. & A. Mauranen, A. (Eds.), Academic writing: intercultural and textual issues (pp. 195-210). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCutchen, D., Francis, M., & Kerr, S. (1997). Revising for meaning: Effects of knowledge and strategy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 667–676.
Merriam, S. B. (1992). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. (2nd ed.) USA: Jossey-Bass.
Meyer, B. J. F. (1975). The organization of prose and its effects on memory. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Mo, Chien-ching. (1991). An extended topic chain: A paragraph development model for Chinese learners of English. Journal of Chengchi University, 62, 285-309. Taipei: National Chengchi University.
Mohan, B. A., & Lo, W. (1985). Academic Writing and Chinese Students: Transfer and Developmental Factors. TESOL Quarterly, 19(3), 515-534.
Mohan, T A., & Lo, W. A. (1985). Academic writing and Chinese students: Transfer and developmental factors. TESOL Quarterly, 19(3), 515-534.
Monahan, B. D. (1984). Revision strategies of basic and competent writers as they write for different audiences. Research in the Teaching of English, 18, 288-301.
Murray, D. M. (1997). Teach writing as a process not product. In V. Villanueva (Ed.), Cross-talk in comp theory: A reader (pp. 3-6). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Murray, D. M. (1980). Writing as process: How writing finds its own meaning. In T. R. Donovan and W. McClelland (eds.), Eight Approaches to the Teaching of Composition (pp. 3-20). Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English.
Mustaffa, R., and Aman, I. (2007). Thematic progression in the writings of undergraduate LEP learners. The International Journal of Learning, 14(9), 67-82.
Myers, M. (1983). Approaches to the teaching of composition. In M. Myers and J. Gray (eds.), Theory and Practice in the Teaching of Composition: Processing, Distancing and Modeling (pp. 3-44). Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English.
New, E. (1990). Computer-aided writing in French as a foreign language: A qualitative and quantitative look at the process of revision. The Modern Language Journal, 83(1), 80-97.
Nold, E. (1981). Revising. In C. Fredericksen & J. Dominic (Eds.), Writing: The nature development and teaching of written communication (pp. 67-79). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. (1994). On the psychological plausibility of ‘topic’ as a construct in research on writing. Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 17, 25-37.
Nwogu, K. (1995). Structuring Scientific Discourse Using the Given-New Perspective. Forum, 33(4). Available online: http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol33/no4/p22.htm.
Nwogu, K., & T., Bloor. (1991). Thematic progression in professional and popular medical texts. In E. Ventola (Ed.), Functional and systematic linguistics: Approaches and uses (pp. 73-105). The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
Oladejo, J. A. (1993). Error correction in ESL: Learners’ preferences. TESL Canada Journal, 10(2), 71-89.
Ouk, D. (2009). Contrastive rhetoric: Cohesive devices and topical structure analysis of editorializing paragraphs in American English and Cambodian English. Jurnal Sastra Inggris, 8(3), 163-179.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Pappas, C., C. (1985) The cohesive harmony and cohesive density of children's oral and written stories. In J.D. Benson and W.S. Greaves (Eds.), Systematic perspectives on discourse volume 2: Selected applied papers from the 9th international systemic workshop (pp. 169-186). New Jersey: Ablex.
Patthey-Chavez, G. G., & Ferris, D. R. (1997). Writing conferences and the weaving of multi-voiced texts in college compositions. Research in the Teaching of English, 31(1), 51-90.
Paulus, T. (1999). The effect of peer and teacher feedback on student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 265-289.
Perez, S. A. (2000). Revising during writing in a second grade classroom. Educational Research Quarterly, 25(1), 27-32.
Perl, S. (1979). The composing processes of unskilled college writers. Research in the Teaching of English, 13(4), 317-336.
Perl, S. (1980). Understanding composing. College Composition and Communication, 31(4), 363-369.
Ping, A. L. (2004). Delimiting the theme of the English clause–an inference-boundary account. SKY Journal of Linguistics 17, 167–187.
Porte, G. (1995). Writing wrongs: Copying as a learning strategy for underachieving EFL writers. English Language Teaching Journal, 49, 144-151.
Porte, G. (1996). When writing fails: How academic context and past learning experiences shape revision. System, 24, 107-116.
Porte, G. (1997). The etiology of poor second language writing: The influence of perceived teacher preferences on second language revision strategies. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6, 61-78.
Porter, P. A., Goldstein, L. M., Leatherman, J. & Conrad, S. (1990). An ongoing dialogue: Learning logs for teacher preparation. In J. Richards and D. Nunan (eds.), Second language teacher education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Raimes, A. (1985). What unskilled ESL students do as they write: A classroom study of composing. TESOL Quarterly 19, 229-258.
Raimes, A. (1987). Language proficiency, writing ability, and composing strategies: A study of ESL college student writers. Language Learning, 37(3), 439-469.
Ravelli, L. J. (1995). A dynamic perspective: Implications for metafunctional interaction and an understanding of theme. In R. Hasan and P. H. Fries (eds.), On subject and theme: A discourse functional perspective (pp. 187-234). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Reichardt, C. S. & Cook, T. D. (1979). Beyond qualitative versus quantitative methods. In T. D., Cook and C. S. Reichardt (Eds.), Qualitative and quantitative methods in evaluation research (pp. 39-67). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Reid, J. (1993). Teaching ESL Writing. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Reid, J. (1997). Responding to ESL student language problems: Error analysis and revision plans. In J.M. Reid and P. Byrd, Grammar in the composition classroom (pp. 118-137). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Ren, S., Cao, Y. J., Cao, Y & Li, Q. (2009). Thematic operational approach
and the writing teaching of college English. Asian Social Science, 5(11),
Renkema, J. (1993). Discourse studies. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Rohman, D. G. (1965). Prewriting: The stage of discovery in the writing process. College Composition and Communication, 16(2), 106-112.
Rose, M. (1984). Writers’ block: The cognitive dimension. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Rothschild, D., & F. Klingenberg. (1990). Self and peer evaluation of writing in the interactive ESL classroom: An exploratory study. TESL Canada Journal, 8, 52-65.
Rubin. J. (1975). What the good language learner can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 177-198.
Sade, O. C. (2007). Thematic progression in Christian written discourse in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 64-68.
Saito, H. (1994). Teachers’ practices and students’ preferences for feedback on second language writing: A case study of adult ESL learners. TESL Canada Journal, 11(2), 46-70.
Schneider, M. & U. Connor. (1990). Analyzing topical structure in ESL essays: Not all topics are equal. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12(4), 411–427.
Schumman, F. M. and Schumman, J. H. (1977). Diary of a language learner: An introspective study of second language learning. In H. D. Brown, R. H. Crymes, and C. A. Yorio (eds.), On TESOL ’77: Teaching and learning English as a second language: Trends in research and practice (pp. 241-249). Washington, DC: TESOL.
Schwartz, B. (1993). On explicit and negative data effecting and affecting competence and linguistic behavior. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 147-163.
Scott, V. (1996). Rethinking Foreign Writing. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Sheen, Y. (2006). Corrective feedback, individual differences, and the acquisition of English articles by second language learners. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Shen, H. L. (2004). Improving coherence in high school students’ English composition through instruction of topical development. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University.
Silva, T. (1990).Second language composition instruction: developments, issues, and directions in ESL. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 11-23). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Silva, T. (1993). Toward an understanding of the distinct nature of L2 writing: The ESL research and its implications. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 657-677.
Simpson, J. (2000). Topical structure analysis of academic paragraphs in English and Spanish. Journal of Second Language Writing, 9(3), 293-309.
Smith, C. (2001) Writing Instruction: Changing Views over the Years. ERIC Digest D155. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication: Indiana University. Bloomington, IN.Web site: http://eric.indiana.edu. Site accessed 20 August 2001.
Smith, F. (1982). Writing and the writer. London: Heinemann Educational Books.
Sommers, N. (1980). Revision strategies of student writers and experienced adult writers. College Composition and Communication, 31, 23-31.
Sommers, N. (1992). Between the drafts. College Composition and Communication, 43, 378-388.
Sperling, M. (1990). I want to talk to each of you: Collaboration and the teacher-students writing conference. Research in the Teaching of English, 24 (3), 279-321.
Stallard, C. K. (1974). An alalysis of the writing behavior of good student writers. Research in the Teaching of English, 8, 206-218.
Stenhouse, L. (1983). Case study in educational research and evaluation. In L. Bartlett, S. Kemmis, and G. Gillard (eds.), Case Study: An Overview. Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press.
Taylor, B. P. (1981). Content and written form: A two-way street. TESOL Quarterly, 15, 5-13.
Thompson, G. (2004). Introducing functional grammar (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University press.
Tierney, R. J., & Mosenthal, J. H. (1983). Cohesion and textual coherence. Research in the Teaching of English, 17(3), 215-229.
Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46, 327-369.
Truscott, J. (1999). The case for “The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes”: A response to Ferris. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 111-122.
Truscott, J. (2007). The effect of error correction on learners’ ability to write accurately. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16, 255-272.
Truscott, J., & Hsu, A. Y. (2008). Error Correction, revision and learning. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 292-305.
Tsao, C. W. (2004). Translation from L1 into L2 and Vocational Senior High School Students L2 Writing: Coherence as a Focus. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chengchi University.
Tseng, Y. T. (2008). Textual Cohesion in Taiwanese College Students' English Writing: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University.
Uzawa, K. (1996). Second language learners' processes of L1 writing, L2 writing, and translation from L1 into L2. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5, 271-294.
Vande Kopple, W. J. (1986). Given and new information and some aspects of the structures, semantics, and pragmatics of written texts. In C. Cooper & S. Greenbaum (Eds.). Studying Writing: Linguistic Approaches (pp. 72-111). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Vann, R., & R., Abraham (1990). Strategies of unsuccessful language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 177-198.
Veluz, O. (1992). TSA as basis for evaluating coherence in student writing and for developing self-learning materials to teach coherence in written discourse. Unpublished dissertation, De La Salle University-Manila, Phillippines.
Ventola, E., & A., Mauranen. (1991). Non-native writing and revising of scientific articles. In E. Ventola (Ed.), Functional and systematic linguistics: approaches and uses (pp. 457-492). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Victori, M. (1999). An anlaysis of written knowledge in EFL composing : A case study of two effective and two less effective writers. System, 27, 537-555.
Villamil O. S. & M. C. M. de Guerrero. (1996). Peer revision in the L2 classroom: Social-cognitive activities, meditating strategies, and aspects of social behavior. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5(1), 51-75.
Wang, E. Y. (2008). Argumentative Writing Strategies and Writing Process Strategies Used by EFL College Freshmen and Juniors: A Case Study. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Changhua University of Education.
Wang, Y. F. (1998). Facilitating EFL reading by teaching text cohesive ties. The proceeding of the seventh international symposium on English teaching (pp. 855-866). Taipei: Crane Publishing Co.
Watson Todd, R. (1998). Topic-based analysis of classroom discourse. System, 26(3), 303–318.
Watson Todd, R., Thienpermpool, P. & Keyuravong, S. (2004). Measuring the coherence of writing using topic-based analysis. Assessing Writing, 9, 85-104.
Watson Todd, R., Khongput, S. & P., Darasawang. (2007). Coherence, cohesion and comments on students’ academic essays. Assessing Writing, 12, 10-25.
Weigle, S. C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Weissberg, R. C. (1984). Given and new: Paragraph development models from scientific English. TESOL Quarterly, 18(3), 485-500.
Weir, C. (1990). Communicative language testing. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Weir, C. (1993). Understanding and developing language tests. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Weissberg, R. C. (1984). Given and new: Paragraph development models from scientific English. TESOL Quarterly, 18(3), 485-500.
Wenden. A. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall International.
Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching language as communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Witte, S. P. (1983a). Topical structure and revision: An exploratory study. College Composition and Communication, 34, 313-341.
Witte, S. P. (1983b). Topical structure and writing quality: Some possible text-based explanations of readers’ judgments of students’ writing. Visible Language, 17, 177-205.
Yang, M., Badger, R & Yu, Z. (2006). A comparative study of peer and teacher feedback in a Chinese EFL writing class. Journal of Second Language Learning, 15, 179-200.
Yang, X. (2008). Thematic progression analysis in teaching explanation writing. English language Teaching, 1(1), 29-33.
Yeh, C. C. (2001). Conferencing in a college composition classroom. The Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on English Teaching, pp. 165-176. Taipei: Crane.
Yule, G. (1996). The Study of Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zamel, V. (1982). Writing: The process of discovering meaning. TESOL Quarterly, 16(2), 195-209.
Zamel, V. (1983a). The composing process of advanced ESL students: Six case studies. TESOL Quarterly, 17(2), 165-187.
Zamel, V. (1983b). Teaching those missing links in writing. ELT Journal, 37(1), 22-29.
Zamel, V. (1985). Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly, 19(1), 79-101.
Zamel, V. (1987). Recent research in writing pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 21(4), 697-715.
Zhang, M. (2000). Cohesive features in the expository writing of undergraduates in two Chinese universities. RELC Journal, 31(1), 61-95.
Zhou, X. H. (2007). Application of English cohesion theory in the teaching of writing to Chinese graduate students. US-China Education Review, 4(7), 31-37.
Zhu, Y. (1997). An analysis of structural moves in Chinese sales letters. Text, 17(4), 543-566.
|Appears in Collections:||[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.