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Title: 1942年:近代超克論對中國與台灣文學的影響
Other Titles: 1942:The Discourse of Overcoming Modernity$S Impact on Chinese and Taiwanese Literature
Authors: 陳芳明
Contributors: 國立政治大學台灣文學研究所
Keywords: 1942年;近代超克論;中國;台灣;文學
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2012-11-05 17:00:03 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在全世界的現代化過程中,1942年對東方與西方的歷史是關鍵的一年。就在這年期間,日本帝國在大東亞戰爭的軍事行動,正要臻於高峰。當時有一群相當知名的知識份子,參加了一個近代超克的座談會,是由《文學界》這份雜誌所主辦。這群知識份子集合每個人的思考,要產生一個論述來合理化日本帝國政府所發動的戰爭。座談會的參與者都積極鼓勵,日本人民要貶抑西方資本主義國家如英國、美國所帶來的現代化運動。他們要日本回到固有的文化傳統,建立一個日本現代性,來取代西方現代性。幾乎在同一時間,德國法蘭克福學派的兩個知識份子,霍克海默與阿多諾出版了一本非常有名的專書《啟蒙辯證法》。在書中,他們嚴厲批判由於現代化的加速發展而帶來資本主義的墮落,同時也貶抑德國政府所發動的戰爭。相形之下,日本知識份子站在他們政府的軍事立場上,來建立一個日本式的現代化。可是法蘭克福學派的學者,則是站在他們好戰政府的對立面,對於現代化予以嚴厲批判。就在這兩種批判的現代性之間,在中國又出現了第三種聲音。1942年,毛澤東在他的革命基地延安,對於中國革命作家發表了一個相當重大的演講〈在延安文藝座談上的講話〉。在這講話裡,毛澤東強調中國農民生活潛藏著文化力量,保留了燦爛與豐富的文化傳統。他鼓勵這些革命作家必須走入民間。他刻意指出帝國主義的侵略所帶來的西方資本主義與現代化已經腐化了中國社會。他這種近代中國超克的觀點正好與帝國主義的現代化劃清了界線。本計畫的目的在於分析文學文本,分別由殖民地台灣的日籍作家、左翼中國的革命作家,以及中國淪陷區南京、北京的文學協力者所產出來的;本計畫並且也在於考察這三個地區作家與知識份子所提出的近代超克論之神話與實際。
In the course of world-wide modernization, 1942 was a pivotal year in the history of East and West. During this year, Japanese Empire was reaching its apex in the military engagement in the Greater East Asian War while a group of very renown Japanese intellectuals rallied to a roundtable discussion named “Overcoming Modernity” sponsored by a magazine called Literary Circle (Bungakkai) to brainstorm a discourse for justifying the war initiated by the imperial government. The participants of this discussion encouraged Japanese people to denounce the modernization movement introduced by the western capitalist countries like England and America. And they also supported an alternative modernity by returning to the cultural tradition of Japan in order to develop a Japanese modernity. Almost at the same time, the two important intellectuals of the Frankfurt School in Germany, Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno published a famous book entitled Dialectics of Enlightenment, in which both of them critically criticized the decadence of capitalism brought by the rapid development of modernization and denounced the war launched by the German government. Whereas the Japanese intellectuals who sided themselves with the military policy of their government fostered a Japanese-style modernization to replace a Western-style modernization, the scholars of the Frankfurt School took the opposed position to their hawkish government by a critical attitude toward modernization. Between these two types of critical modernity, there came the third voice from wartime China. Mao Tse-Tung in his powerbase at Yenan gave a significant speech to Chinese revolutionary writers entitled “An Yenan Talk at the Roundtable Discussion on Literature and Arts”. In the talk, Mao emphasized the potential cultural power hidden among Chinese peasant life where had preserved splendid abundance of cultural tradition and encouraged those writers who rallied to him to go to the people. He intentionally pointed out that western capitalism and modernization accompanied by the invasion of imperialism had corrupted Chinese society. His view of overcoming modernity drew a very clear line with imperialist modernization. This project aims to analyze the literary texts produced by Japanese writers in colonial Taiwan, revolutionary writers in leftist China, and Chinese literary collaborators in areas like Nanking and Peiping occupied by Japanese during wartime and attempts to inquire into the myths and reality centering on the different ways of thinking about overcoming modernity expressed by writers and intellectuals in colonial Taiwan, revolutionary China, and Chinese puppet areas occupied by Japanese.
Relation: 基礎研究
10008~ 10107
研究經費: 845仟元
Data Type: report
Appears in Collections:[臺灣文學研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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