Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 一位國中生的第一次出國遊學經驗:個案研究語言學習者之個人概念改變與挑戰
Taking the very first overseas study trip: a case study on a junior high EFL learner’s identity change and challenges
Authors: 吳怡萱
Wu, Yi Hsuan
Contributors: 招靜琪
Chao, Chin Chi
Wu, Yi Hsuan
Keywords: 出國遊學
study abroad
language learner identity
imagined community
case study
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-02-04 09:44:10 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 出國讀書一向被視為外語學習者培養外語能力的好方法。本研究旨在透過記錄一位名為Jenny的國中生至美國的短期遊學經驗,以探究短期遊學對外語學習者的學習歷程及個人概念改變的影響。
研究結果顯示Jenny遇到的困難包括(1)和寄宿家庭成員建立關係。(2)在學校情境遇到衝突。(3)和以英語為母語的本地人相處過程中的困難。這過程中, Jenny的個人概念及想像社群也一直受到挑戰與修正,引發她對自己的個人概念及自己身為語言學習者更深層的了解。除此之外,短期遊學後,Jenny對自己身為台灣人有了新的觀點,對自己國家的信念也加強了。
Study abroad (SA) has been regarded as a great way to help learners develop foreign language proficiency. The major purpose of this study is to explore how short-term SA experience can affect the learning trajectory and the identity (re)construction of a Taiwanese junior high school student called Jenny through investigating her short-term study trip to the U.S.
A qualitative method was adopted in this case study. Data were collected through diaries, documentation, and three semi-structured interviews. Jenny's English learning experiences were explored longitudinally by categorizing them into three main phases: the pre-SA experience, the during-SA experience, and the three-month-later post-SA experience. By analyzing the data collected, the difficulties and challenges that Jenny encountered in the foreign context, her changing imagined communities and identity, and the impact this short-term SA experience had on her perspectives on English leaning and herself as an English learner were discussed.
It was found that Jenny encountered some difficulties during the trip and she struggled to (1) build up relations with members of her host family, (2) resolve the conflicts in school context, and (3) deal with the difficulties when interacting with target language speakers. Moreover, just as Norton’s(2011) definition of identity provided, Jenny's identity and her identification with her imagined American community had been constantly challenged and revised during the trip, leading to the deeper realization of her identity and herself as a language learner. Other than that, after the trip Jenny's commitment toward her native country was strengthened because she cultivated a new perspective toward her identity as a Taiwanese and redefined her relationship with her vernacular world.
Finally, pedagogical implications and suggestions derived from the discussions were proposed for SA program designers, language educators, and English teachers to make the SA trips more fruitful and beneficial for language learners.
Reference: Allen, H. W. (2010). What shapes short-term study abroad experiences? A comparative case study of students' motives and goals. Journal of Studies in International Education, 4(5), 452-470.
Allen, H. W., Dristas, V., & Mills, N. (2006). Cultural learning outcomes and summer study abroad. In M., Mantero (Ed.), Identity and second language learning:Culture, inquiry, and dialogic activity in educational contexts (pp. 187-214).Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.
Allen, H. W. & Herron, C. A. (2003). A mixed methodology investigation of the linguistic and affective outcomes of summer study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 36, 370-384.
Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
Bacon, M. S. (2002). Learning the rules: language development and cultural adjustment during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 35, 637-646.
Bailey, K. M. (1980). An introspective analysis of an individual language learning experience. In R. Scarcella & S. Krashen (Eds.), Research in second language acquisition: Selected papers of the Los Angeles second language acquisition research forum (pp. 58–65). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Bailey, K. M. & Ochsner, R. (1983). A methodological review of the diary studies: windmill tilting or social science? In K.M. Bailey, M. H. Long, & S. Peck (Eds.), Second language acquisition studies (pp.188-198). Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.
Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Berg, M. V., Connor-Linton, J. & Paige, R. M. (2009) The Georgetown Consortium Project. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 1-75
Block, D. (2007). Second Language Identities. London ; New York: Continuum.
Bourdieu, P. (1977). The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Information, 16, 645–668.
Bourdieu, P., Passeron, J. (1977). Reproduction Education, Society, and Culture. CA: Sage, Beverly Hills.
Brecht, R. D., Davidson, D. E., & Ginsberg, R. B. (1995). Predictors of foreign language gains during study abroad. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisi¬tion in a study abroad context (pp. 37–66). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Cangarajah, S. (1993). Critical ethnography of a Sri Lankan classroom: Ambiguities in student opposition to reproduction through ESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 601-626.
Carlson, J., Burn, B., Useem, J., & Yachimowicz, D. (1990). Study abroad: The experience of American undergraduates. New York: Greenwood Press.
Chen, S. L. (陳淑玲)(2012) The Study of Chinese Study Tour Design and Practice: An Example of Canberra University, Australia. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Cho, J., & Trent, A. (2006). Validity in qualitative research revisited. Qualitative Research 6(3), 319-340.
Cubillos, J., Chieffo, L., & Fan, C. (2008). The impact of short-term study abroad programs on L2 listening comprehension skills. Foreign Language Annals, 41, 157–185.
Dagenais, D. (2003). Accessing imagined communities throuc gh multilingualism and immersion education. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 2, 269-283.
Dewey, D. P. ( 2007). Japanese vocabulary acquisition by learners in three contexts. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 15,127-148.
Diamond, J.S. (2010). The Identity, Second Language, and the Classroom Dynamic: Participant Observation in a Beginning Korean as a Second Language Classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana.
Djité, P. G. (2006). Shifts in linguistic identities in a global world. Language Problems &Language Planning, 30(1), 1-20.
Dwyer, M. M. (2004). More is better: The impact of study abroad program duration. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 151-163.
Ellis, C. (2004). The ethnographic I: A methodological novel about authoethnography. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.
Freed, B. (1995). What makes us think that students who study abroad become fluent? In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp. 123-148). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Freed, B., Segalowitz, N., & Dewey, D. P. (2004). Context of learning and second language fluency in French. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 275-311. Institute of International Education. (2010). Open doors: Report on international educational exchange. from
Giltrow, J., & Calhoun, E. R. (1992). The culture of power: ESL traditions, Mayan resistance. In B. Burnaby & A. Cumming (Eds.), Socio-political aspects of ESL(pp.50–66). Toronto, Canada: OISE Press.
Hoffman, B. (1989). Lost in Translation. A Life in a New Language. New York: Dutton.
Ingram, M. (2005). Recasting the foreign language requirement through study abroad: A cultural immersion program in Avignon. Foreign Language Annals, 38, 211–222.
Jang, C. H. (張淳惠)(2004). The Influences of Study Tours on the English Learning Attitudes and the English Learning achievements of Junior High School Students in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis. Providence University.
Jorge H., Cubillos, J. H., Chieffo, L & Fan, C (2008). The impact of short-term study abroad programs on L2 listening comprehension skills. Foreign Language Annuals, 41 (1), 157-185.
Kanno, Y. (2000). Bilingualism and identity: The stories of Japanese returnees. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 3(1), 1-18.
Kanno, Y. (2003). Imagined communities, school visions and the education of bilingual students in Japan. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 2, 285-300.
Kanno, Y. & Norton, B. (2003). Imagined communities and educational possibilities: Introduction. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2(4), 241–249.
Kinginger, C. (2004). Alice doesn’t live here anymore: Foreign language learning and identity reconstruction. In A. Pavlenko & A. Blackledge (Eds.), Negotiation of identities in multilingual contexts (pp. 219-242). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Kinginger, C., & Farrell, K. (2004). Assessing development of meta-pragmatic awareness in study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 19–42.
Kline, R. R. (1998). Literacy and language learning in a study abroad context. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4, 139-165.
Lafford, B. A. (1995). Getting into, through, and out of a survival situation: A comparison of communicative strategies used by students studying Spanish. In B. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisi¬tion in a study abroad context (pp. 97-121). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Laubscher, M.R. (1994). Encounters with Difference: Student Perceptions of the Role of Out-of-Class Experiences in Education Abroad. NY: Greenwood Press
Lin, L. S. (林麗生) (2002). Dream Flying--A Case Study of Taiwan’s ” Study Tour Group “ in Cambridge. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taitung University.
Lord, G. (2006). Defining the indefinable: Study abroad and phonological memory abilities. In C. A. Klee & T. L. Face (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 7th conference on the acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as first and second languages (pp. 40–46). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.
McElwee, R. O., & Dunning, D. (2005). A broader view of “self” in egocentric social judgment: Current and possible selves. Self and Identity, 4, 113-130.
McKay, S. L., & S.-L. C. Wong. (1996). Multiple discourses, multiple identities: Investment and agency in second-language learning among Chinese adolescent immigrant students. Harvard Educational Review, 66(3), 577-608.
Martinsen, R. (2008). Short-term study abroad: predicting changes in oral skills. Foreign Language Annuals, 43 (3), 504-530
Martinsen, R. (2011). Predicting changes in cultural sensitivity among students of Spanish during short-term study abroad. Hispania, 94 (1), 121-141.
Miller, L., & Ginsberg, R. B. (1995). Folk linguistic theories of language learning. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp. 294-315). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning: Gender, ethnicity and educational change. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Norton, B. (2001). Non-participation, imagined communities and the language classroom. In M. Breen (Ed.), Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp. 159-171). Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Norton, B., & Kamal, F. (2003). The imagined communities of English language learners in a Pakistani school. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 2(4), 301-317.
Norton, B. & McKinney, C. (2011). An identity approach to second language acquisition. In D. Atkinson (Ed.), Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition (pp.73-94). London ; New York : Routledge.
Norton Peirce, B. (1995). Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 409–430.
Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in Language Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Owens, T. J. (2003). Self and identity. In J. Delamater. (Ed.) Handbook of social psychology. (pp. 205-232). NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Paige, R. M., Cohen, A. D., Kappler, B., Chi, J. C.,&Lassegard, J. P. (2006). Maximizing study abroad: A student’s guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.
Pavlenko, A. (2003). I never knew I was a bilingual: Reimagining teacher identities in TESOL. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 2(4), 251-268.
Pavlenko, A. (2007). Autobiographic narratives as data in applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 28 (2), 163-188.
Pavlenko, A., & Lantolf, J. P. (2000). Second Language Learning as Participation and the (Re)construction of Selves. In J. P. Lantolf. (Ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. (pp. 155-157). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pellegrino, V. A. (1998). Student perspectives on language learning in a study abroad context. Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad,4, 91-120
Polanyi, L. (1995). Language learning and living abroad: Stories from the field. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp. 271-291). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Ricento, T. (2005). Considerations of identity in L2 learning. In E. Hinkel. (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. (pp. 895-910). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Richards, K. (2003). Qualitative inquiry in TESOL. Houndsmills, U.K: Palgrave Macmillian.
Rivers, W.R. (1998). Is being there enough? The effects of homestay placements on language gain during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 31, 492-499.
Schmidt-Rinehart, B.C., Knight, S.M. (2004). The homestay component of study abroad: three perspectives. Foreign Language Annals, 37, 254-262.
Segalowitz, N.& Freed, B. F. (2004). Context, contact, and cognition in oral fluency acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 173-199.
Siegal, M. (1995). Individual differences and study abroad: Women learning Japanese in Japan. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp. 225-243). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Simões, A. R. M. (1996). Phonetics in second language acquisition: An acoustic study of fluency in adult learners of Spanish. Hispania, 79, 87-95.
Snow, D. A., & McAdam, D. (2000). Identity work processes in the context of social movements: Clarifying the identity/movement nexus. In S. Stryker, T. J. Owens,
& R. W. White (Eds.). Self, Identity, and Social Movements, (pp. 41-67).
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tzeng, A. H. (曾安煌) (2006). The Case Study of a Junior High Students' Overseas Study Tour Abstract. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
Weedon, C. (1987). Feminist practice and poststructural theory. London: Blackwell.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Wilkinson, S. (1998). Study abroad from the participants’ perspective: A challenge to common beliefs. Foreign Language Annals, 31(1), 23-39.
Yager, K. (1998). Learning Spanish in Mexico: The effect of informal contact and student attitudes on language gain. Hispania, 81, 898-913.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File SizeFormat
100101.pdf702KbAdobe PDF885View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing