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Title: 先秦儒學思想中的「君」、「臣」與「民」
"Jun" (君), "Chen" (臣) and "Min" (民) in Pre-Qin Confucianist Thought
Authors: 林啟屏
Lin, Chi-Ping
Contributors: 政大中文系
Keywords: 儒學;;;
Date: 2011-06
Issue Date: 2013-03-18 10:15:32 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 儒家學說構成中國文化的核心,其價值取向主導了許多人的行為規範與信念。尤其值得注意的是,儒學所建構的價值取向既然滲透到「生活世界」的諸般面向,那麼與人們息息相關的「政治領域」,自亦有儒家的特殊信念之灌注。因此,探討先秦儒學思想的「政治」主張,即為研究中國文化之一重大課題。當然,政治的實踐是一充滿「權力」意味的現實事務。先秦儒者既不是一甘於權力旗幟之下的順臣,亦非昧於事理的保守主義者。是以,其學說中自充滿著以「人民」或「天下」為出發點的理想性立場。此種立場經常衝撞了現實權力中的支配者,惹來嘲諷。然而,正是此種與現實的「生活世界」,保持著某種若即若離的微妙關係,方可為人世間的現實,指引一條理想的方向。底下,從兩個部份進行探討。首先,本文將針對政治活動中的「權力」本質,進行分析。說明中國古典政治結構的基本特質,及其於「權力」的行使上的幾個問題,釐清儒者所處的時代氛圍。其次,我將檢討孔孟傳世文獻中的政治實踐觀點,並與出土文獻的內容,進行討論。說明儒家政治思想中,「君」、「臣」、「民」三者的關係,從而點出所謂「二重主體性」的衝突斷裂中,儒者的因應之道。
The theory and teachings of Confucianism comprise the core of Chinese culture, and throughout the ages, the value system embodied by Confucianism has guided the moral codes of behavior and beliefs of people. Confucianism has permeated various aspects of life in most fundamental ways, including the realm of politics. Thus, the concept of politics in pre-Qin Confucianism is an important topic of study in research on Chinese culture. This article first explores the nature of power in politics and then delineates the basic characteristics of the political structure in ancient China in order to understand the political atmosphere during the era of pre-Qin Confucianism. Secondly, I also examine ideas on how to practice politics found in the works of Mengtzu and Confucius, comparing them to excavated documents. The article then delves into the relationship between monarch ("jun"), subject ("chen") and people ("min") in Confucian political thought.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 15, 143-168
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[中國文學系] 期刊論文
[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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