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Title: 韓國之中國認知的變化
South Korea's changed perception on China
Authors: 朴成林
Contributors: 何思因
Ho, Szu yin
Keywords: 韓中關係
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-06-03 17:39:02 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文之研究動機是如此而已:在今日的韓國之中國認知如何?筆者在2012年寫這論文時,韓中關係處於比較緊張的局面,而美國之亞洲重返的情形加以緊張的程度。在北韓核武器危機與美國之重返亞洲之下,韓國與中國之間的分歧與認知上的變化取得世人的矚目。筆者認為,國家之間安全保護因素決定對外政策的方向,為曾明這假設與韓國之中國認知及其變化,我採取北韓核武器危機上的韓國之中國認知變化,因北韓因素與北韓核武器是韓國之安全保護上的關鍵的因素。筆者採取古典現實主義與建構主義、分析韓國之中國認知的變化。所謂‘認知’具有結果包括的認知與心理上存在的認知,而筆者以古典現實主義測量韓國之中國方面的政策變化及其結果、分析韓國之中國認知上的變化及,同時筆者對韓國的政治領袖與一般民眾之中國認知以心理存在的認知測量和文件調查的結果、分析它們的中國認知及其變化。為指出北韓核武器因素對韓國之中國認知(政策、理解)之變化,我比較北韓核武器危機前後,先探索1992年韓中建交及其背景、發現當時韓國之中國認知更為積極、主要目的在於以中國之影響力、改變北韓。但北韓核武器危機之中,中國謹慎小心介入這問題,而中國在六方會談中、雖然不斷努力協調,但中國與六方會談成員國束手無策目睹北韓的第一次核武器實驗(2006年)、顯示中國之北韓方面影響力之限制,因北韓社會非常封閉、難以接受國外的影響力,同時北韓負擔中國東北地區的保護之角色,故中國對北韓方面的協調毫無使得任何結果。這失敗引起韓國國內之北韓政策與對外政策,而2007年總統選舉中,李明博指出北韓政策與對外政策的變化。他從2008年至2010年與美國強化同盟、推進強硬的北韓政策、遭遇天安船事件與延坪島炮擊戰,中國對此毫無表示態度、卻支持中立的立場、遇到韓國之中國認知的變化,而韓國之中國認知由北韓核武器危機協調失敗導致的結果。除了國家安全領域之外,韓國之商業界對中國投足不斷增加,同時政治領袖的中國方面認知也處於好感,但國家安全領域上的危機導致國內輿論,這使得總統選舉的結果、產出韓國之對外政策方向的變化。
The main motive of thesis is that. : In today, how does South Korea perceive on China? The author written in the thesis in 2012, South Korea – China’s relation was in tension and U.S’s pivot to Asia added the level of tension. Under the circumstance of North Korea’s nuclear crisis and U.S’s pivot to Asia, South Korea and China’s tension and the perception has raised the attention from the world.
I reckon, national security decides the direction of foreign policy and for proving my idea and solving the question of South Korea’s perception on China, I took the case that South Korea’s perception on China in the crisis of North Korea’s nuclear weapon as experiment, because North Korea factor and the nuclear crisis is the key factor in South Korea’s national security. In the thesis, I use two of theory in IRs: Classical Realism and Constructivism. I use it to analyze South Korea’s perception on China and the change. Perception includes two of perspectives: Psychological factor and its outcome and I took Classical Realism to analyze South Korea’s perception on China and the change in foreign policy, economic performance that are all classified as outcome of perception and
To prove North Korea factor in changed South Korea’s perception on China, I compared the situation by North Korea nuclear crisis that has been from 1993 and searched for the perception of South Korea in the establishment of South Korea – China’s diplomatic ties and South Korea’s perception on China was in positive in 1992. The North Korea factor in the diplomatic ties between South Korea and China was key factor and South Korea made efforts to build ties with China that was aimed to change North Korea by China’s influence. However, in the crisis of North Korea’s nuclear weapon, China approached the issue with very careful attitude and China made efforts to solve the crisis in the system of Six Party Talks. But, China and the member countries of Six Party only watched North Korea’s first nuclear test without any implication in 2006 that shown China’s influence to North Korea is limited that North Korea is extremely closed society and oversea countries’ influence is not worked and North Korea, in reality, has charged as guardian for Eastern-North provinces of China. Therefore, China’s efforts on North Korea have not brought any visible outcome. The failure brought an change of South Korea’s public opinion on North Korea policy and foreign policy that Lee Myung-bak offered the changed policy on North Korea, foreign affairs in the presidential election in 2007 that has been high attention from the public. He strengthen alliance with U.S and offered changed policy against North Korea that confronted Cheonan Naval sinking in 2009 and bomb shelling in Yeonpyung Island in 2010. China has not offered visible attitude on the followed crisis and just urged calm attitude for them and it marked South Korea’s changed perception on China that was began from the first nuclear test of North Korea in 2006. Except the factor of National Security, South Korea’s economic investment and trade on China has been increased and political figure’s perception on China was in positive. But, the crisis of national security turned a direction on public opinion to negative and brought changed outcome of presidential election in 2007, so the crisis of national security, in reality, turned a direction of South Korea’s perception on China.
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