Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 14與18個月嬰兒理解他人的溝通意圖
Fourteen- and Eighteen-Month-Old Infants Understand Others' Communicative Intents
Authors: 簡嘉慧
Chien, Chia Hui
Contributors: 姜忠信
Chien, Chia Hui
Keywords: 溝通意圖理解
communicative intentional understanding
nonverbal cues
intentional vocalization
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-07-01 17:32:54 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 理解他人的意圖,指的是理解他人的行為背後蘊含著一個希望達成的具體目標,是嬰兒社會認知發展中一項重要的基礎能力,而此能力的發展應具有跨文化一致性。然而,過去國內外研究結果顯示,台灣與西方嬰兒透過非語言線索理解他人溝通意圖的能力有明顯的落差。因此,本研究為了瞭解台灣嬰兒理解非語言線索的溝通意圖之能力,並找出可能導致上述不同研究結果的作業差異原因,將藉由兩項實驗來探討此議題。實驗一以藏物遊戲為實驗派典,觀察14與18個月的台灣嬰兒,在「眼神注視」、「手指指示」及「意圖性語音」三種非語言線索情境中,是否可藉由對線索溝通意圖的理解而找出隱藏的意圖目標物。結果發現14個月的台灣嬰兒,可理解他人「手指指示」線索的溝通意圖,但無法理解「眼神注視」與「意圖性語音」線索的溝通意圖,而18個月的台灣嬰兒則是可理解他人「眼神注視」線索的溝通意圖,但卻無法理解「手指指示」與「意圖性語音」線索的溝通意圖。為了排除藏物容器設計可能造成的干擾因素,實驗二調整了藏物容器裝置,以同樣的實驗方式觀察台灣嬰兒理解他人非語言線索溝通意圖的能力。結果發現,14個月的台灣嬰兒仍只能藉由「手指指示」線索理解他人的溝通意圖,但18個月的台灣嬰兒則已可透過「眼神注視」、「手指指示」及「意圖性語音」三種非語言線索理解他人的溝通意圖。此結果說明,台灣與西方嬰兒透過非語言線索理解他人溝通意圖的能力大致相同,即嬰兒理解他人溝通意圖的能力確實具有跨文化一致性。
Understanding the intents of others, to understand the existence of specific goals that people wish to achieve from their behaviors, is one of important basic abilities in the social cognitive development of an infant. The developmental time frames of such ability should be the same across cultures. However, previous domestic and overseas studies proposed that the abilities of infants to understand the communicative intents of others through nonverbal cues are different between Taiwanese and western cultures. Hence, in this study, two controlled experiments were conducted to explore the abilities of Taiwanese infants to understand the communicative intents of others through nonverbal cues and the factors of the tasks that may cause different results between domestic and overseas studies. In the first experiment, an experimenter used the cues of gazing, pointing, and intentional vocalization in a hiding-game task to examine whether fourteen- and eighteen-month-old Taiwanese infants could infer communicative intents expressed in the three nonverbal cues and find the hidden objects. Results showed that 14-month-old Taiwanese infants could only follow the cue of pointing to find the hidden objects, but not gazing or intentional vocalization. And 18-month-old Taiwanese infants could find the hidden objects by following only the cue of gazing. To exclude the possible interferences of the target containers, the experimenter used the same procedures and settings in the second experiment as the first one, but modified the containers to clarify the hiding-game task. Results showed that 14-month-old Taiwanese infants could still follow only the cue of pointing to find the hidden object, but 18-month-old Taiwanese infants successfully followed all three types of cues. Based on these findings, the abilities of infants to understand others’ communicative intents by following nonverbal cues are the same in Taiwanese and western cultures. That is, the developmental time frames of the abilities of infants to understand the communicative intents through nonverbal cues are the same across different cultures.
Reference: 王瑾婷、姜忠信(2011)。16至20個月嬰幼兒對意圖線索的理解。中華心理學刊,53,149-166。
Akhtar, N., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (1996). The Role of Discourse Novelty in Early Word Learning. Child Development, 67, 635-645.
Anscombe, G. E. M. (1986). Intention. Freiburg, Germany: Alber.
Baird, J. & Moses, L. (2001). Do preschoolers appreciate that identical actions may be motivated by different intentions? Journal of Cognition and Development, 2, 413-448.
Baldwin, D. A. (1993). Early referential understanding: infants' ability to recognize referential acts for what they are. Developmental Psychology, 5, 832-843.
Bartsch, K., & Wellman, H. M. (1995). Children talk about the mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bates, E. (1979). Intentions, conventions, and symbols. In E. Bates, L. Benigni, I. Bretherton, L. Camaioni, & V. Volterra (Eds.), The emergence of symbols: Cognition and communication in infancy (pp. 33–68). New York: Academic Press.
Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. Developmental Science, 8, 492-499.
Behne, T., Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). Twelve-month-olds’ comprehension and production of pointing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 359-375.
Broke, H. (1975). Piaget's mountains revisited: changes in the egocentric landscape. Developmental Psychology, 2(2), 240-243.
Bruner, J. S. (1973). Organization of early skilled action. Child Development, 44, 1-11.
Butterworth, G. (1991). The ontogeny and phylogeny of joint visual attention. In A. Whiten (Ed.), Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development and simulation of everyday mindreading. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Butterworth, G. (1995). Origins of mind in perception and action. In C. Moore & P. Dunham (Eds.), Joint attention: Its origins and role in development, (pp.29-42). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Butterworth, G. & Cochran, E. (1980). Towards a Mechanism of Joint Visual Attention in Human Infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 3, 253-272.
Butterworth, G. & Jarrett, N. (1991). What minds have in common is space: spatial mechanisms serving joint visual attention in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 55-72.
Carpendale, J. I. M. & Lewis, C. (2004). Constructing an understanding of mind: The development of children’s social understanding within social interaction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 79–151.
Carpenter, M., Akhtar, N., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Fourteen through 18-months-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental action. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 315-330.
Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63, 1-143.
Csibra, G., Gergely, G., Biro, S., Koos, O., & Brockbank, M. (1999). Goal attribution without agency cues: the perception of “pure reason” in infancy. Cognition, 72, 237-267.
Diamond, A. (1985). Development of the ability to use recall to guide action, as indicated by infants’ performance on AB. Child Development, 56, 868-883.
Dunn, J.; Brown, J.; & Beardsall, L. (1991). Family talk about feeling states and children's later understanding of others' emotions. Developmental Psychology, 27, 448-455.
Fishbein, H. D., Lewis, S., & Keiffer, K. (1972). Children's understanding of spatial relations: coordination of perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 7(1), 21-33.
Gergely, G., Nadasdy, Z., Csibra, G., & Biro, S. (1995). Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition, 56, 165-193.
Hornick, R., Risenhoover, N., & Gunnar, M. (1987). The effects of maternal positive, neutral, and negative affective communications and infant responses to new toys. Child Development, 58, 937–944.
Jenkins & Astington, (1996). Cognitive factors and family structure associated with theory of mind development in young children. Developmental Psychology, 32, 70-78.
Leung, E. H. L. & Rheingold, H. L. (1981). Development of pointing as a social gesture. Developmental Psychology, 17, 215-220.
Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretense and representation: the origins of “theory of mind”. Psychological Review, 94, 412-426.
Malle, B. F., Moses, L. J., & Baldwin, D. A. (2004). Introduction: the significance of intentionality. In B. F. Malle, L. J. Moses, & D. A. Baldwin (Eds.), Intentions and intentionality (pp. 1-24). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Markovitch, S. & Zelazo, P. D. (1999). The A-not-B error: Results from a logistic meta-analysis. Child Development, 70, 1297-1313.
McCartney, K. (1984). Effect of quality of day care environment on children's language development. Developmental Psychology, 20(2), 244-260.
Meltzoff, A. N. (1988). Infant imitation and memory: nine-month-olds in immediate and deferred tests. Child Development, 59, 217-225.
Meltzoff, A. N. (1995). Understanding the intentions of others: Re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. Developmental Psychology, 31, 838-850.
Meltzoff, A. N. & Brooks, R. (2004). “Like me” as a building block for understanding other minds: bodily acts, attention, and intention. In B. F. Malle, L. J. Moses, & D. A. Baldwin (Eds.), Intentions and intentionality (pp. 171-191). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Meltzoff, A. N., Gopnik, A., & Repacholi, B. M. (1999). Toddlers’ understanding of intentions, desires, and emotions: explorations of the dark ages. In P. D. Zelazo, J. W. Astington, & D. R. Olson (Eds.), Developing Theories of Intention: Social Understanding and Self-Control (pp. 17–41). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Meltzoff, A. N. & Moore, M.K. (1995). Infants’ understanding of people and things: from body imitation to folk psychology. In J. Bermudez, A. J. Marcel, & N. Eilan (Eds.), The body and the self (pp.43-69). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mumme, D. L., Femald, A., & Herrera, C. (1996). Infants' Responses to Facial and Vocal Emotional Signals in a Social Referencing Paradigm. Child Development, 67, 3219-3237.
Nardini, M., Thomas, R. L., Knowlanda, V. C. P., Braddick, O. J., & Atkinson, J. (2009). A viewpoint-independent process for spatial reorientation. Cognition, 112, 241–248.
Olineck, K. M. & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2005). Infants' ability to distinguish between intentional and accidental actions and its relation to internal state language. Infancy, 8, 91-100.
Phillips, A. T. & Wellman, H. M. (2005). Infants’ understanding of object-directed action. Cognition, 98, 137-155.
Phillips, A. T., Wellman, H. M., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Infants’ ability to connect gaze and emotional expression to intentional action. Cognition, 85, 53-78.
Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgment of the child. Harcourt Brace.
Piaget, J. (1952). The origin of intelligence in the children. New York: Basic Books.
Povinelli, D., Reaux, J., Bierschwale, D., Allain, A., & Simon, B. (1997). Exploitation of pointing as a referential gesture in young children, but not adolescent chimpanzees. Cognitive Development, 12, 327-365.
Repacholi, B. (1998). Infants' use of attentional cues to identify the referent of another person's emotional expression. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1017-1025.
Repacholi, B., & Gopnik, A. (1997). Early reasoning about desires: Evidence from 14- and 18-month-olds. Developmental Psychology, 33, 12-21.
Ruffman, T., Slade, L. & Crowe, E. (2002). The relation between children’s and mothers’ mental state language and theory-of-mind understanding. Child Development, 73, 734-751.
Ruffman, T., Slade, L., Sandino, J. C. & Fletcher, A. (2005). Are A-not-B errors caused by a belief about object location? Child Development, 76, 122-136.
Searle, J. R. (1983). Intentionality: An essay in the philosophy of mind. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Shultz, T. R. & Wells, D. (1985). Judging the intentionality of action-outcomes. Development Psychology, 21, 83-89.
Smith, M. C. (1978). Cognizing the behaviour stream: the recognition of intentional action. Child Development, 49, 736-743.
Sorce, J. F., Emde, R. N., Campos, J. J., & Klinert, M. D. (1985). Maternal emotional signaling: Its effect on the visual cliff behavior of 1-year-olds. Developmental Psychology, 21, 195-200.
Tardif, T. & Wellman, H. M. (2000). Acquisition of mental state language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking children. Developmental Psychology, 36, 25-43.
Thelen, E., Schoner, G., Scheier, C., & Smith, L. B. (2001). The dynamics of embodiment: A field theory of infant perseverative reaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 1-86.
Tomasello, M. (1995). Joint attention as social cognition. In C. Moore & P. Dunham (Eds.), Joint attention: Its origins and role in development, (pp.103-130). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tomasello, M. (2000). The cultural of origins of human cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tomasello, M. & Barton, M. (1994). Learning words in nonostensive contexts. Developmental Psychology, 5, 639-650.
Tomasello, M., Call, J., & Gluckman, A. (1997). Comprehension of novel communicative signs by apes and human children. Child Development, 68, 1067-1080.
Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 675-735.
Tomasello, M., Strosberg, R., & Akhtar, N. (1996). Eighteen-month-old children learn words in non-ostensive contexts. Journal of Child Language, 23, 157-176.
Wellman, H. M., Fang, F., Liu, D., Zhu, L., & Liu, G. (2006). Scaling of theory-of-mind understandings in Chinese children. Psychological Science, 17, 1075-1081.
Wellman, H. M. & Lagattuta, K. H. (2000). Early understanding of mind the normal case. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding other mind: perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience (pp.21-49). Oxford University Press.
Wellman, H. M. & Phillips, A. T. (2004). Developing intentional understandings. In B. F. Malle, L. J. Moses, & D. A. Baldwin (Eds.), Intentions and intentionality (pp. 125-148). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Wellman, H. M. & Woolley, J. D. (1990). From simple desires to ordinary beliefs: The early development of everyday psychology. Cognition, 35, 245-275.
Woodward, A. L. (1998). Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor’s reach. Cognition, 69, 1-34.
Woodward, A. L. (1999). Infants’ ability to distinguish between purposeful and non-purposeful behaviors. Infant Behavior and Development, 22(2), 145-160.
Woodward, A. L. (2003). Infants’ developing understanding of the link between looker and object. Developmental Science, 6, 297–311.
Woodward, A. L. & Guajardo, J. (2002). Infants’ understanding of the point gesture as an object-directed action. Cognitive Development, 17, 1061-1084.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File SizeFormat
201801.pdf2206KbAdobe PDF6113View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing