Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 中國城鎮地區勞動薪資差異分解
Authors: 楊孟嘉
Contributors: 莊奕琦
Keywords: 農民工
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-07-01 17:37:26 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 中國自1978年經濟改革開放之後,逐步放鬆戶口管制,農村勞動力得以遷移至城鎮地區,為工業化提供了必要的勞動力,從而帶動了中國的城鎮化與經濟發展。然而中國的戶口管理制度依然限制了農民工的身分與權利,使得城鎮地區的勞動市場產生了二元化的區隔。本文運用2008年「中國農民工研究」的資料,以Heckman兩階段的樣本選擇偏差的修正配合Oaxaca薪資差異分解方法,探討中國城鎮地區的勞動市場中城鎮居民與農民工之間的薪資差異和可能的歧視。在第一階段的研究中,我們發現薪資性工作者與自營者的薪資結構顯著不同,並且屬於不同的就業選擇,因此在設定薪資結構的迴歸模型時必須考慮樣本選擇的問題。在第二階段的研究中,我們將薪資差異分解為個體稟賦的差異、對城鎮勞工族群有利的歧視與對農民工不利的歧視等來源。實證結果顯示,經修正樣本選擇的偏誤後,城鎮居民與農民工之間的薪資差異比實際觀察值大,其中歧視的部分高達薪資差距的60-70%。惟在人力資本的相關變數:經驗與教育,能夠改善歧視狀況;而在工作合同、產業、地區等制度性因素則不利於農民工,代表在勞動市場的薪資結構中,農民工顯著地受到制度性歧視。
Reference: 參考文獻
Cai, Fang and D. Wang (2003), “Migration As Marketization: What Can We Learn from China’s 2000 Census Data?”, The China Review, Vol. 3(2), pp. 73-93.
Cai, Fang (2008a), Lewis Turning Point: A Coming New Stage of China’s Economic Development. Beijing, China: Social Sciences Academic Press.
Cai, Fang (2008b), “Approaching a Triumphal Span: How Far is China towards Its Lewisian Turning Point?”, UNU-WIDER Research Paper, No. 2008/09.
Cai, Fang (2010), “Demographic Transition, Demographic Dividend, and Lewis Turning Point in China”, China Economic Journal, Vol. 3(2), pp. 107-119.
Cai, Fang and Y. Du (2011), “Wage Increases, Wage Convergence, and the Lewis Turning Point in China”, China Economic Review, Vol. 22, pp. 601-610.
Chan, Kam Wing (1996), “Post-Mao China: A Two-Class Urban Society in Making”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 20(1), pp. 134-150.
Chan, Kam Wing and L. Zhang (1999), “The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes”, China Quarterly, Vol. 160, pp. 818-855.
Chan, Kam Wing (2009), “The Chinese Hukou Syatem at 50”, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol. 50(2), pp. 197-221.
Chow, G. C. (1993), “Capital Formation and Economic Growth in China”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 108(3), pp. 809-842.
Cotton, J. (1988), “On the Decomposition of Wage Differentials”, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 70(2), pp. 236-243.
Du, Yang and W. Pan (2009), “Minimum Wage Regulation in China and Its Application to Migrant Workers in the Urban Labour Market”, China and World Economy, Vol. 17(2), pp. 79-93.
Du, Yang and M. Wang (2010), “Discussion on Potential Bias and Implications of Lewisian Turning Point”, China Economic Journal, Vol. 3(2), pp. 121-136.
Golley, J. and X. Meng (2011), “Has China Run Out of Surplus Labour?”, China Economic Review, Vol. 22, pp. 555-572.
Guo, Jiqiang, L. Jiang, and L. Lu (2011), “Decomposition Methods for Wage Differentials: A Survey”, China Economic Quarterly, Vol. 10(2), pp. 363-414.
Hare, Denise. (1999), “’Push’ versus ‘Pull’ Factors in Migration Outflows and Returns: Determinants of Migration Status and Spell Duration among China’s Rural Population”, Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35(3), pp. 45-72.
Heckman, J. (1979), “Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error”, Econometrica, Vol. 47(1), pp. 153-161.
Islam, N. and K. Yokota (2008), “Lewis Growth Model and China’s Industrialization”, Asian Economic Journal, Vol. 22(4), pp. 359-396.
Jann, B. (2008), “A Stata Implementation of the Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition”, ETH Zurich Sociology Working Paper, No.5
Jones, F. L., and J. Kelly (1984), “Decomposing Differences between Groups: A Cautionary Note on Measuring Discrimination”, Sociological Methods and Research, Vol. 12(3), pp. 323-343.
Knight, J., Q. Deng, and S. Li (2011), “The Puzzle of Migrant Labour Shortage and Rural Labour Surplus in China”, China Economic Review, Vol. 22, pp. 585-600.
Kwan, Fung (2009), “Agricultural Labour and the Incidence of Surplus Labour: Experience from China during Reform”, Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol. 7(3), pp. 341−361.
Lee, Leng (2012), “Decomposing Wage Differentials between Migrant Workers and Urban Workers in Urban China’s Labor Markets”, China Economic Review, Vol. 23, pp. 461-470.
Lewis, W. A. (1954), “Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour”, Manchester School of Economics and Social Studies, Vol. 22, pp. 139-191.
Liang, Zai, (1999), “Foreign Investment, Economic Growth, and Temporary Migration: The Case of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, China,” Development and Society, Vol. 28(1), pp. 115–137.
Lin, Justin, Fang Cai, and Zhou Li (1996), The China Miracle: Development Strategy and Economic Reform, Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
Lu, Z. and S. Song (2006), “Rural-Urban Migration and Wage Determination: The Case of Tianjin, China”, China Economic Review, Vol. 17, pp. 337-345.
Meng, Xin (2000), Labour Market Reform in China, Cambride University Press.
Meng, Xin and Junsen Zhang (2001), “The Two-Tier Labor Market in Urban China: Occupational Segregation and Wage Differentials between Urban Residents and Rural Migrants in Shanghai”, Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 29(3), pp. 485−504.
Meng, Xin and N. Bai (2008), “How much have wages of unskilled workers in China increased?”, in R. Garnaut, & Lijang Song (Eds.), China: Linking markets for growth, pp. 151−175, Canberra: Asian Pacific Press.
Minami, Ryoshin (1967a), “The Turning Point in the Japanese Economy”, Center Discussion Paper No. 20, the Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
Minami, Ryoshin (1967b), “Population Migrtion Away from Agricultural in Japan”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 15(2), Part 1., pp. 183-201.
Minami, Ryoshin and X. Ma (2010), “The Lewis Turning Point of Chinese Economy: Comparison with Japanese Experience”, China Economic Journal, Vol. 3(2), pp. 163-179.
Neumark, D. (1988), “Employers’ Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination”, Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 23(3), pp. 279-295.
Neuman, S. and R. Oaxaca (2004), “Wage Decomposition with Selectivity-corrected Wage Equation: A Methodological Note”, Journal of Economic Inequality, Vol. 2(1), pp. 3-10.
Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review, Vol. 41(3), pp. 693-709.
Oaxaca, R. and M. Ransom (1994), “On Discrimination and the Decomposition of Wage Differentials”, Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 61, pp. 5-21.
Qu, Zhaopeng and Z. Zhao (2011), “Evolution of the Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Labor Market from 2002 to 2007”, Working Paper.
Ranis, G. and J. C. H. Fei (1961), “A Theory of Economic Development”, American Economic Review, Vol. 51, pp. 533-565.
Ranis, G. and J. C. H. Fei (1975), “A Model of Growth and Employment in the Open Dualistic Economy: The Case of Korea and Taiwan”, Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 11(2), pp. 32-63.
Reimers, C. (1983), “Labor Market Discrimination against Hispanic and Black Men”, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 65(4), pp. 570-579.
Todaro, M. P. (1969), “A Model of Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries”, American Economic Review, Vol. 59(1), pp. 138–148.
Wang, Meiyan (2010), “The Rise of Labor Cost and the Fall of Labor Input: Has China Reached Lewis Turning Point?”, China Economic Journal, Vol. 3(2), pp. 137-153.
Wu, Harry Xiaoying (1994), “Rural to Urban Migration in the People’s Republic of China”, China Quarterly, Vol. 139, pp. 669-698.
Yang, Dennis Tao and Hao Zhou (1999), “Rural-Urban Disparity and Sectoral Labour Allocation in China”, Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35(3, pp. 105-133.
Yang, Du and M. Wang (2010), “Discussions on Potential Bias and Implications of Lewis Turning Point”, China Economic Journal, Vol. 3(2), pp. 121-136.
Yao, Yang (2001), “Social Exclusion and Economic Discrimination:The Status of Migrants in China’s Coastal Rural Areas”, Working Paper.
Yao, Yang and K. Zhang (2010), “Has China Passed the Lewis Turning Point? A Structural Estimation Based on Provincial Data”, China Economic Journal, Vol. 3 (2), pp. 155-162.
Zhang, Xiaobo, J. Yang, and S. Wang (2011), “China Has Reached the Lewis Turning Poing”, China Economic Review Vol. 22, pp. 542-554.
Zhao, Yaohui (1997), “Labor Migration and Returns to Rural Education in China”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 79(4), pp. 1278–1287.
Zhao, Yaohui (1999a), “Labor Migration and Earning Differences: The Case of Rural China”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 47(4), pp. 767–782.
Zhao, Yaohui (1999b), “Leaving the Countryside: Rural-To-Urban Migration Decisions in China”, American Economic Review, Vol. 89(2), pp. 281–286.
Zhao, Yaohui (2002), “Causes and Consequences of Return Migration: Recent Evidence from China”, Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 30, pp. 376–394.
Zhao, Yaohui (2003), “The Role of Migrant Networks in Labor Migration: The Case of China”, Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 21(4), pp. 500–511.
Zhao, Zhong (2005), “Migration, Labor Market Flexibility, and Wage Determination in China: a Review”, The Developing Economies, Vol. 43(2), pp. 285–312.
Zhu, Nong (2002), “The Impacts of Income Gaps on Migration Decision in China”, China Economic Review, Vol. 13, pp. 213–230.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[經濟學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
801501.pdf537KbAdobe PDF198View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing