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Effects of Two Advance Organizers on Listening Comprehension in Video Viewing— Pictorial Contextual Cues versus Verbal Contextual Keys
Huang, Shu Chen
|Issue Date:||2013-09-02 17:43:54 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||本研究旨在探討前導組織(advance organizer)教學對國中生英文聽力理解的影響。關於前導組織的實證研究為數眾多，其中不少分別針對圖像類(pictorial)及文字類(verbal)前導組織對聽力促進、閱讀習得之效用做探討，未見有研究將兩類前導組織的效用一起比較。因此，本實驗採用此兩類前導組織，經量化研究方法，探究「圖像語境線索」(Pictorial Contextual Cues)及「文字語境關鍵」(Verbal Contextual Keys) 對國中生觀看無字幕英語發音影片時聽力理解的影響。|
研究對象為台灣北部一所國立高中之國中部三年級三個班的八十七位學生，三個班級皆採常態分班，經隨機指定為兩實驗組及一對照組。實驗歷時四個禮拜，實驗前對三組受試者施以前測—GEPT中級聽力測驗—以得知受試者個別的英文聽力程度。實驗後讓受試者填寫一態度問卷，以得知受試者對前導組織的看法及感想。實驗時，觀看教學影片前，兩個實驗組及一個對照組分別接受「圖像語境線索」(Pictorial Contextual Cues)、「文字語境關鍵」(Verbal Contextual Keys)及「無實驗處理」(No treatment)，前導組織教學後隨即觀看一個約五分鐘長的無字幕英語教學影片(instructional video)。影片觀看後，三組受試者隨即接受研究者根據影片聽力內容自編的測驗，以得知受試者的理解程度。如此的實驗過程重複三次，四個禮拜後，根據三個聽後測驗的結果進行統計分析，本研究主要發現
This study is to investigate the effects of the two advance organizers—pictorial contextual cues and verbal contextual keys—on students’ English listening comprehension. There were many empirical studies examining the effects of pictorial or verbal advance organizers respectively. However, based on the researcher’s literature review, effects of these two distinct types of advance organizers have not been compared. Hence, the researcher intended to find out if the two advance organizers—pictorial contextual cues and verbal contextual keys—facilitate students’ English listening comprehension on watching video clips without captions.
There were 87 9th-grade participants, divided into two experimental groups and one control group, receiving pictorial contextual cues, verbal contextual keys, and no treatment. In the beginning, all participants received a test, i.e. the listening comprehension section of General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) intermediate level. Then, the three groups received their respective treatments in three consecutive weeks. Each time after the treatments, participants watched a 5-minute video clip and took a listening test on the content they just heard. After viewing the three video clips, on the fourth week, participants filled out an attitude questionnaire to express their perceptions of advance organizers. Analyzing the results of the three listening tests and the questionnaire, the researcher found that both groups receiving advance organizers significantly outscored the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the two advance organizers. As for students’ attitude,
more than half of all the participants agreed on the effectiveness of the two advance organizers. Yet, more students in the Verbal Contextual Keys group held positive attitude on receiving the advance organizer again.
Though designing or preparing advance organizers and selecting suitable authentic/instructional video materials may take teachers much extra time and energy, students could be motivated when they learned the “real language.” Moreover, English listening training could be more interesting and diverse.
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