Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 不同渴求構念與焦慮、憂鬱以及執行功能的關係-針對海洛因戒治人之探討
The relationship of different constructs of craving with anxiety, depression and executive function.
Authors: 李人儀
Contributors: 許文耀
Keywords: 海洛因
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2013-09-03 13:24:43 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究目的為探討國內海洛因戒治人的渴求經驗,試圖檢驗藥物渴望量表(DDQ)(Franken, 2002)在台灣樣本的信效度,同時了解不同渴求構念與焦慮、憂鬱以及執行功能的關係。
The purpose of the present study was to discuss the craving experience of heroin addicts during compulsory treatment in Taiwan. Drug Desire Questionnaire (Franken, 2002) was used to investigate different craving constructs that were positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and control. DDQ was validated in this research. This study also examined the relationships between heroin craving, depression, anxiety and executive function.
According to models of craving and research, the present study tried to examine the two models of DDQ simultaneously. Two models were also accepted but the model composed positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement was better than one-factor model. Control factor of DDQ was not validated.
The result of partial correlation analysis revealed that negative reinforcement was significantly related to anxiety after control the effect of positive reinforcement. According to the results of correlation analysis, two different craving construct were also significantly related to working memory and not related to the other ability of executive function. Implications for clinical applications and future research were also suggested.
Reference: 中文部分
邱皓政(民95) 。結構方程模式:LISREL 的理論、技術與應用。台北市

楊永年(2008) 。海洛因防制政策-海洛因毒品防制政策。
American Psychiatric Association(2000).Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disease (Fourth Edition, Text Revision ).Washington, DC:
American Psychiatric Association.
Andersohn F.& Kiefer F.(2004).Depressive mood and craving during alcohol withdrawal: association and interaction. German Journal of Psychiatry 7, 6-11
Anton, R. F.(1996).Neurobehavioral basis for the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism: current and future directions. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 31(Suppl) , 43-53
Anton, R.F. (1999)What Is Craving? Models and Implications for Treatment. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3),165-173.
Anton, R. F., & Drobes, D. J. (1998). Clinical measurement of craving in
addiction. Psychiatric Annals, 28, 553−560.
Anton, R. F., Moak, D. H., & Latham, P. (1995). The Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale: A self-rated instrument of the quantification of thoughts about alcohol and drinking behavior. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 92−99.
Bagozzi, R. P., and Yi, Y. (1998), “On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16 (1), 76-94.
Bohn, M. J., Krahn, D. D., & Staehler, B. A. (1995). Development and initial
validation of a measure of drinking urges in abstinent alcoholics. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 600−606
Brand M., Roth-Bauer M., Driessen M., Markowitsch H J. (2008) Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 97, 64–72.
Breiner, M. J., Stritzke, W. G. K., & Lang, A. R. (1999). Approaching avoidance: A step essential to the understanding of craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23, 197−206.
Baker, T . B., Sherman, J. E. & Morse, E. (1987).The motivation to use drugs: a psychobiological analysis of urges, In: Rivers, C. (Ed.) The Nebraska symposium on motivation: Alcohol use and abuse( pp.257-323 ).Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press.
Conklin, C. A., & Tiffany, S. T. (2002). Applying extinction research and theory to cue-exposure addiction treatments. Addiction, 97, 155−167.
Cox, L. S., Tiffany, S. T., & Christen, A. G. (2001). Evaluation of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges in laboratory and clinical settings. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 3, 7−16.
Collins, R. L., & Lapp, W. M. (1992). The Temptation and Restraint Inventory for measuring drinking restraint. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 625−633.
Castro V. D., Fong T., Rosenthal, R. J.,& Tavares H. (2007).A comparison of craving and emotional states between pathological gamblers and alcoholics .Addictive Behaviors,32,1555–1564
Crews F. T., Boettiger C.A.(2009)Impulsivity, frontal lobes and risk for addiction.Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior,9, 237–247
Dijkstra A., &Tromp D.(2000).Is the FTND a measure of physical as well as psychological tobacco dependence? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment ,23,367– 374.
  Dijkstra B. A. G., ,De Jong C.A.J., Bluschke S.M. , Krabbe P.F.M., van der  
     Staak C.P.F. (2007) Does naltrexone affect craving in abstinent         
     opioid-dependent patients?, Addict Biol 12, 176–182.
Domier, C. P., Monterosso, J. R., Brody, A. L., Simon, S. L., Mendrek, A.,
Olmstead, R., et al. (2007). Effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on
Stroop task performance. Psychopharmacology, 195(1), 1-9
Dom G, Sabbe B, Hulstijn W, van den Brink W (2005) Substance use disorders and the orbitofrontal cortex: systematic review of behavioural decision-making and neuroimaging studies. Br J Psychiatry,187, 209 –220
Drummond, D. C. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction,96, 33−46.
De las Cuevas., C., Sanz, E. J., de la Fuente, J. A., Padilla, J. & Berenguer, J.C.
(2000).The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) as screening test for
benzodiazepine dependence: SDS validation study. Addiction, 95 (2),
D'Elia, L.F., Satz, P., Uchiyama, C.L. and White, T.(1996) Color Trails Test. Professional manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL
Fernández-Serrano, M.J., Pérez-García, M., Perales, J.C., Verdejo-García, A. (2010) Prevalence of executive dysfunction in cocaine, heroin and alcohol users enrolled in therapeutic communities. European Journal of Pharmacology, 626, 104-112
Franken, I. H. A. (2003). Drug craving and addiction: Integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacological approaches. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 27, 563−579.
Franken, I. H. A., Hendriks, V. M., & van den Brink, W. (2002). Initial validation of two opiate craving questionnaires: The Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale and the Desires for Drug Questionnaire. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 675−685.
Franken, I. H. A., Stam, C. J., Hendriks, V. M., & Van den Brink, W. (2003). Neurophysiological evidence for abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues in heroin dependence. Psychopharmacology, 170(2), 205-212.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An
Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Field, M., Cox, W.M., (2008) Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: a review of its development, causes, and consequences. Drug Alcohol Depend. 97, 1–20.
Gossop, M., Darke, S., Griffiths, P., Hando, J., Powis, B.,& Hall,W. (1995). The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS): psychometric properties of the SDS in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users. Addiction, 90, 607−614.
Gawin, F.H. and Kleber, H.D. (1986) Abstinence symtomatology and psychiatric diagnosis in cocaine abusers. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 43, 107-l 13.
Gifford E. & Humphreys K.(2006)The psychological science of addiction. Addiction, 102, 352–361
Heaton, R. K., Chelune, G. J., Talley, J. L., Kay, G. G., & Curtis, G. (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). manual revised and expanded. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources Inc.
Heishman, S. J., Singleton, E. G., & Liguori, A. (2001). Marijuana Craving Questionnaire: Development and initial validation of a self-report instrument. Addiction, 96, 1023−1034.
Heishman, S. J., Singleton, E. G., & Moolchan, E. T. (2003). Tobacco Craving Questionnaire: Reliability and validity of a new multifactorial instrument. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 5, 645−654.
Heishman, S. J., Singleton, E. G., & Pickworth, W. B. (2008). Reliability and validity of a short form of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10, 643−651
Hung V. C., Chen, C. H., Lin, T. Y. , Chou, H. H. , Lai, T. J., Ferri, C. P. ,& Gossop, M.(2008)Severity of heroin dependence in Taiwan: Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS[Ch]). Addictive Behaviors 33 ,1590–1593
Heinz, A., Lober S., Georgi, A., Wrase J., Hermann D., Rey, E.R., Wellek , S., &Mann, K.(2003)Reward craving and withdrawal relief craving: assessment of different motivational pathways to alcohol intake. Alcohol & Alcoholism .38(1), 5–39.
James, D., Davies, G., & Willner, P. (2004). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire to measure craving for amphetamine. Addiction, 99, 1181−1188.
Joreskog, Karl G. & Sobom, Dag(2003).Lisrel 8.54 manual.
Joyce, E.M., Robbins, T.W.(1991) Frontal lobe functioning in Korsakoff and
non-Korsakoff alcoholics: planning and spatial working memory.
Neuropsychologia,29, 709– 723.
Kaye, S., & Darke, S. (2002). Determining a diagnostic cut-off on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for cocaine dependence. Addiction, 97, 727−731.
Kamarajan C, Porjesz B, Jones KA, Choi K, Chorlian DB, Padmanabhapillai A, Rangaswamy M, Stimus AT, Begleiter H (2005) Alcoholism is a disinhibitory disorder: neurophysiological evidence from a Go ⁄ No-Go task. Biol Psychol,69:353–373
Koob GF, Le Moal M (October 1997). "Drug abuse: hedonic homeostatic dysregulation". Science 278 (5335): 52–8
Kozlowski, L. T. and Wilkinson, T. A. (1987) Use and misuse of the concept
of craving by alcohol, tobacco, and drug researchers. British Journal of
Addiction 82, 31–36
Lezak, M.D., Howieson, & Loring, D. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment. (4th Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press
Love, A., James, D., & Willner, P. (1998). A comparison of two alcohol craving questionnaires. Addiction, 93, 1091−1102.
London ED, Ernst M, Grant S, Bonson K, Weinstein A (2000). Orbitofrontal cortex and human drug abuse: functional imaging. Cereb Cortex 10(3):334-42
Ludwig, A. M., & Wikler, A. (1974) 'Craving' and relapse to drink. Quarterly Joumal of Studies on Alcohol, 35, 108-130.
Ludwig, A. M., Wikler, A. & STARK, L. H. (1974) The First drink:
psychobiological aspects of craving. Archives of General Psychiatry,30,
Marlatt, G. A. (1985) Cognitive factors in the relapse process, in: Marlatt, G. A. & Gordon, J. R. (Eds), Relapse prevention,( pp. 128-200).New York: Guildford Press.
Madden CJ, Zwaan RA (2001) The impact of smoking urges on working memory performance. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, 9:418–424.
Marissen, M., Franken, I. H. A., , Blanken P., van den Brink, W.& Hendriks, V. M. (2006). The relation between social desirability and different measures of heroin craving. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 24, 91-103.
Marissen, M., Franken, I. H. A., Blanken P., van den Brink, W.& Hendriks, V. M. (2006). Attentional bias predicts heroin relapse following treatment. Addiction, 101 , 1306–1312
McEvoy, P. M., Stritzke, W. G. K., French, D. J., Lang, A. R., & Ketterman, R. L. (2004). Comparison of three models of alcohol craving in young adults: A cross validation. Addiction, 99, 482−497.
Mol, A. J. J., Oude Voshaar, R. C., Gorgels,W. J. M. J., Breteler, M. H.M., van Balkom, A. J. L.M., van de Lisdonk, E. H., et al. (2003). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire. Addiction, 98, 1143−1152.
Martin, G., Copeland, J.,Gates, P., &Gilmour S.(2006).The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) in an adolescent population of cannabis users: Reliability, validity and diagnostic cut-off. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,83,90–93.
Makris N, Oscar-Berman M, Jaffin SK, Hodge SM, Kennedy DN, Caviness VS, Marinkovic K, Breiter HC, Gasic GP, Harris GJ (2008). Decreased volume of the brain reward system in alcoholism. Biol Psychiatry 64(3):192-202
Modell, J. G., Glaser, F. B., Mountz, J. M., Schamltz, S., & Cyr, L. (1992). Obsessive and compulsive characteristics of alcohol abuse and dependence: Quantification by a newly developed questionnaire. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 16, 266−271
Noël X, Van der Linden M, D’Acremont M, Colmant M, Hanak C, Pelc I, Verbanck P, Bechara A (2005) Cognitive biases toward alcohol related words and executive deficits in poly-substance abusers with alcoholism. Addiction,100, 1302–1309
Noel X, Van Der Linden M, d’Acremont M, Bechara A, Dan B, Hanak C, Verbanck P (2007) Alcohol cues increase cognitive impulsivity in individuals with alcoholism. Psychopharmacology 192, 291-298
Ollo, C., Alim, T. N., Rosse, R. B., Cunningham, S., Gillis, T., Khan,M., et al. (1995). Evaluating craving in crack-cocaine abusers. American Journal of Addiction, 4, 323−330
Powell, J., Dawkins, L., & Davis, R. E. (2002). Smoking, reward responsiveness, and response inhibition: Tests of an incentive motivational model. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 151-163.
Rosenberg(2009 )Clinical and laboratory assessment of the subjective experience of drug craving.Clinical Psychology Review,29 ,519–534.
Robinson, T.E., and Berridge, K.C. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving:
an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res. 18, 247–291.
Robinson, A. L., Heaton, R. K., Lehman, R. A., & Stilson, D. W. (1980). The utility of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in detecting and localizing frontal lobe lesions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 605–614.
Siegel, S. (1989) Pharmacological conditioning and drug effects, In: Goudie, A. J. & Emmett-Oglesby, M. W. (Eds) Psychoactive Drugs: tolerance and sensitization.( pp. 115–180 ).Clifton, NJ, Humana Press.
Solomon, R. L. & Corbit, J. D. (1974) An opponentprocess theory of motivation. I. Temporal dynamics of affect, Psychological Review, 81, 119–145.
Stewart, J., Dewit, H. & Eikelboom, R. (1984) Role of unconditioned and conditioned drug effects in the self-administration of opiates and stimulants, Psychological Review, 91, 251–268.
Singleton, E. G., Tiffany, S. T., & Henningfield, J. E. (1994). Alcohol Craving Questionnaire (ACQ-NOW): Background, scoring, and administration Baltimore, MD: Division of Intramural Research, NIDA.
Sinha R.,Fox H.C.,Hong K. A., Bergquist K., Bhagwagar Z., and Siedlarz K.M. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals.Neuropsychopharmacology,34(5): 1198–1208.
Sussner, B. D., Smelson, D. A., Rodrigues, S., Kline, A., Losonczy, M., & Ziedonis, D. (2006).The validity and reliability of a brief measure of cocaine craving. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83, 233−237
Sherman, J. E., Zinser, M. C., Sideroff, S. I., & Baker, T. B. (1989). Subjective dimensions of heroin urges: Influence of heroinrelated and affectively negative stimuli. Addictive Behaviors, 14, 611−623.
Skinner, M.D., Aubin, H.-J., (2008). Craving’s Place in Addiction Theory: Contributions of the Major Models, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34(4):606-623.
Tiffany, S. T . (1990) A cognitive model of drug urges and drug-use behavior: role of automatic and nonautomatic processes. Psychological Review, 97, 147-168.
Tiffany, S. T. (1997). New Perspectives on the Measurement, Manipulation
and Meaning of Drug Craving. Human Psychopharmacology,12, 103-113 .
Tiffany, S. T. (1999). Cognitive concepts of craving. Alcohol Research & Health ,23(3) ,215-224
Tiffany, S. T., & Conklin, C. A.(2000). A cognitive processing model of alcohol craving and compulsive alcohol use. Addiction, 95(Supplement 2), 145 -153.
Tiffany, S. T., & Drobes, D. J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1467−1476.
Tiffany, S. T., Fields, L., Singleton, E., Haertzen, C., & Henningfield, J. E. (1993). The development of a heroin craving questionnaire. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Unpublished manuscript.
Tiffany, S. T., Singleton, E., Haertzen , C. A., & Henningfield, J. E. (1993). The development of a cocaine craving questionnaire. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 34, 19−28.
Topp, L., & Mattick, R. P. (1997). Choosing a cut-off on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for amphetamine users. Addiction, 92, 839−845.
Verheul, R., van den Brink,W., & Geerlings, P. (1999). A three-pathway psychobiological model of craving for alcohol. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 34, 197−222.
Verdejo-Garcia A., Bechara A., Recknor E. C., Perez-Garcia M.(2006)
Executive dysfunction in substance dependent individuals during drug use and abstinence: An examination of the behavioral, cognitive and emotional correlates of addiction. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 405–415.
Van Beilen M, Pijnenborg M, van Zomeren EH, van den Bosch RJ,Withaar FK, Bouma A.(2004)What is measured by verbal fluency tests in schizophrenia? Schizophr Res 2004;69:267–76.
Weinstein A., Cox W. M.,(2006) Cognitive processing of drug-related stimuli: the role of memory and attention. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 850-859
Zijlstra F., Veltman D. J., Booij J., van den Brink W., Franken I. H. (2009) Neurobiological substrates of cue-elicited craving and anhedonia in recently abstinent opioid-dependent males. Drug Alcohol Depend 99, 183–192
Zijlstra F, Booij J, van den Brink W, Franken IH (2008) Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and dopamine release during cue-elicited craving in recently abstinent opiate-dependent males. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 18:262–270
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File SizeFormat
201301.pdf6642KbAdobe PDF2057View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing