Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Pleasure reading: the effect of reading picture books in class on junior high school students in Taiwan
Huang, Yin Mei
Yu, Ming Chung
Huang, Yin Mei
|Issue Date:||2013-09-04 14:56:54 (UTC+8)|
Pleasure reading refers to any reading in which self-motivated readers pick up books they are interested in and engage themselves in those books. Pleasure reading has long been recognized as a powerful tool for fostering reading interest and enhancing literacy development. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of pleasure reading on EFL junior high school students’ reading motivation, reading comprehension, and writing ability. Sixty-one eighth graders in a junior high school in Taipei were divided into the experimental group (pleasure reading group) and the control group (traditional reading group). This program was carried out during the English Reading class, once a week with 45 minutes for each period. During the 23-week reading program, the experimental group only focused on reading self-selected picture books without any instructions while the control group still received the skill-based reading approach. Before and after the program, their reading and writing ability were examined by the reading and writing tests of General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) and their reading motivation was measured by the Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ). The data collected were analyzed quantitatively and the interview data were utilized to interpret and support the findings.
The results revealed that the experimental group participants’ overall reading motivation was enhanced significantly after the program. As for the multifaceted motivation, the results showed that the participants’ “reading self-efficacy” and “reading achievement values and goals” were influenced strongly by pleasure reading. Among the 12 reading dimensions, “enjoyment” was the most significant factor. All the findings confirmed the main value of pleasure reading-- reading for enjoyment, and such enjoyment promoted students’ reading motivation very positively. With respect to the participants’ reading and writing ability, the results did not show significant improvement. Pleasure reading did not influence the participants’ language proficiency positively. However, both groups made some progress in the posttest in the gain score. Therefore, pleasure reading appeared to be at least as effective as the traditional reading approach. Pleasure reading was more interesting and enjoyable for junior high students.
Although the results may not be taken as conclusive because of limited data and small samples, this study still provides some pedagogical implications and suggestions. Pleasure reading can be implemented into school curriculum as a counterpart of regular English class, a kind of skill-based English class. The school’s morning session is a good time for students to read self-chosen materials. Moderate tasks should be set for students with different language levels to conquer. Appropriate reading activities can be integrated to help stimulate students’ reading. To get a clear picture of its effect on junior high level students, it is necessary to conduct the program for a longer duration and with larger samples. Therefore, it is suggested that further study can start with all the seventh graders in junior high schools and the study should last for three years. The entrance exam of senior high school, the Basic Competence Test can be adopted as the measurement of language proficiency. It is expected that junior high students under academic pressure can learn English happily and effectively.
|Reference:||Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Reading Research and Education Center. |
Alderson, J. C., & Urquhart, A. H. (1984). Reading in a foreign language. London, New York: Longman
Ammon, B. D., & Sherman, G. W. (1996). Worth a thousand words: An annotated guide to picture books for older readers. Englewood, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
Aranha, M. (1985). Sustained silent reading goes East. The Reading Teacher, 39(2),
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Barbara, M. (2002). English L2 Reading: Getting to the Bottom. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Barrett, E., & Paradis, J. (1988). Teaching writing in an on-line classroom. Harvard Educational Review, 58(2), 154-171.
Bishop, R. S., & Hickman, J. (1992). Four or fourteen or forty: Picture books are for everyone. In S. Benedict & L Carlisle (Eds.), Beyond words: Picture books for older readers and writers (pp. 1-10). Portsmouth, HH: Heinemann.
Block, C. C., & Mangieri, J. N. (2002). Recreational reading: 20 years later. The Reading Teacher, 55(6), 572-580.
Brewster, J., Ellis, G., & Girard, D. (1992). The primary English teacher’s guide. London: Penguin.
Bright, J. A., & McGregor, G. P. (1970). Teaching English as a second language. London: Longman.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th Ed.). White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Bruton, A. (2002). Extensive reading is reading extensively, surely? The Language Teacher, 26 (11), 23-25.
Burger, S. (1989). Content-based ESL in a sheltered psychology course: Input, output, and outcomes. TESL Canada, 6, 45-59.
Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Camiciottoli, B. C. (2001). Extensive reading in English: habits and attitudes of a
group of Italian university EFL students. Journal of Research in Reading, 24(2), 135-153.
Carrell, P. L., & Carson, J. G. (1997). Extensive and intensive reading in an EAP setting. ESP Journal. 16 (1), 47-60.
Carrell, P. L., & Eisterhold, J. C. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy.
TESOL Quarterly, 17, 553-573.
Chan, Y. W. (2003). Junior high school English teacher’s idea of current English textbooks in Tainan County. Unpublished master thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Chang, Y. L. (1998). A study of adolescent literature in reading instruction. Taipei:
The Caves Bookstore.
Chen, C. H. (2009). A study on teaching reading strategies through English picture books at junior high school. Unpublished master thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Chen, C. I. (2003). Reading instruction in junior high school: How do junior high school English teachers instruct reading? Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University.
Chen, C. Y. (2006). An exploratory study of how EFL junior high school students develop L2 literacy through task-based reading to writing instruction. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng Kung University.
Chen, L. W. (2004). The Impacts of EFL extensive reading on junior high school students in Taiwan－Language proficiency, reading attitudes and reactions to the extensive reading program. Unpublished master thesis, National Normal Taiwan University.
Chen, M. Y. (2006). EFL children’s reading motivation in extensive reading: A case study. Unpublished master thesis, Ming Chuan University.
Chen, Y. Q. (2005). Correlations between English learning strategies and speaking ability of EFL junior high students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Cheng, C. K. (2003). Extensive reading, word-guessing strategies and incidental vocabulary acquisition. Selected papers from the Twelfth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 188-198). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.
Chin, H. K. (2006). A study of using extensive reading as a supplement in an English curriculum for four-year TVE (Technological and Vocational Education) college. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tainan University of Technology.
Cho, K. S., & Krashen, S. D. (1994). Acquisition of vocabulary from the Sweet Valley Kids series: Adult ESL acquisition. Journal of Reading, 37, 662-667.
Chuang, X. P. (2007). The effect of extensive reading on sixth graders’ English reading comprehension, vocabulary learning and reading attitudes. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Pingtung University of Education.
Chung, J. J. (2007). A research on facilitating junior high school students’ L2 literacy through guided reading and writing instruction. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chen Kung University.
Clifford, M. M. (1991). Risk taking: Theoretical, empirical and education
considerations. Educational Psychologist, 26(1), 263-297.
Cobine, G. R. (1996). Writing as a response to reading. Retrieved November 29, 2005, form http://www.ericdigests.rog/1996-2/writing.html.
Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational Psychological Measurement, 20, 37-46.
Constantino, R. (1995). The effect of pleasure reading: Passing the TOEFL test
doesn’t have to hurt. Mosaic, 3 (1), 15-17.
Cook, V. (2000). Second language learning and language teaching. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
Cothern, N. B. & Collins, M. D. (1992). An exploration: Attitude acquisition and reading instruction. Reading Research and Instruction, 31, 84-97.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Literacy and intrinsic motivation. Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of the Art and Sciences, 119 (2), 115-140.
Cui, Xiaoxia. (1999). Comments on May Shih’s “More than practicing language: communicative reading and writing for Asian settings.” TESOL Journal, 10, 40-41.
Curtain, H., & Pesola, C. A. (1994). "Languages and children: Making the match" (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Danielson, K. E. (1992). Picture books to use with older readers. Journal of Reading, 35, 652-654.
Davis, C. (1995). ‘Extensive reading: An expensive extravagance?’ ELT Journal 49(4), 329-336.
Day, R., & Bamford, J. (2002). Top ten principles for teaching extensive reading.
Reading in a Foreign Language, 14(2), 136-141.
Day, R., & Bamford, J. (2004). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dechant, E. (1991). Understanding and teaching reading; an interactive model. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaumn Associate, Inc.
Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (1994). Promotion self-determined education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 38(1), 4-16.
Deci, E. & Ryan, R., (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.
Dornyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Edmunds, K. M., & Tancock, S. M. (2003). Incentives: The effects on the reading motivation of fourth-grade students. Reading Research and Instruction, 42(12), 17-38.
Elley, W. (1991). Acquiring literacy in a second language: The effect of book-based Programs. Language Learning (4), 375-411.
Elley, W., & Cutting, B. (2001). The “Sunshine in South Africa” literacy project. International Journal of Education Research, 35(2), 193-203.
Elley, W., & Mangubhai, F. (1983). The impact of reading on second language
learning. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 53-67.
Ellis, G., & Brewster, J. (1991). The storytelling handbook. A guide for primary teacher English. London: Penguin
Eskey, D. (1973). A model program for teaching advanced reading to students of English as a second language. Language Learning, 23(2), 169-184.
Eskey, D. (1993). Holding in the bottom: An interactive approach to the language problems of second language readers. In P. Carrell, J. Devine, & D. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (pp. 93-100). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
Foster, P. (1998). A classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning. Applied Linguistics, 9 (1), 1-23.
Fox, G. M. (1990). Increasing intrinsic motivation in second language readers. The Language Teacher, 14(3), 13-15.
Galen, N., & Prendergast, J. (1979). Selling reading. Reading Horizons, 19(4), 280-283.
Gambrell, L. B., & Marinak, B. A. (1997). Incentives and intrinsic motivation to read. In J. T. Guthrie & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp.205-217). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Gardner, D. (2004). Vocabulary input through extensive reading: A comparison of words found in children's narrative and expository reading materials. Applied Linguistics, 25(1), 1-37.
Giddings, L. R. (1992). Literature-based reading instruction: An analysis. Reading Research and Instruction, 31, 18-30.
Giorgis, C. (1999). The power of reading picture books aloud to secondary students.
Clearing House, 73(1), 51-53.
Glazer, J. I. (1997). Introduction to children’s literature, (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Goodman, K. S. (1976). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (pp.497-508). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R. B. (1996). Theory and practice of writing: An applied linguistic perspective. New York: Longman. (G & K)
Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. (2002). Teaching and researching reading: Applied linguistics in action. New York: Longman
Gradman, H. & Hanania, E. (1991). Language learning background factors and ESL proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 75, 39-51.
Greaney, V. (1996). Reading in developing countries: Problems and issues. In V. Greaney (Ed.), Promoting reading in developing countries (pp. 5-38). Newark: International Reading Association.
Green, C. (2005). Integrating extensive reading in the task-based curriculum. ELT Journal, 59, 306-311.
Greenberg, R. B. (1994). Contexts and Communities: Rhetorical approaches to reading, writing, and research. Macmillan College Publishing Company, Inc.
Gunn, C. (2003). Exploring second language communicative competence. Language Teaching Research, 7(2), 240-258.
Guthie, J., & Wang, J. (2004). Modeling the effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amount of reading, and past reading achievement on text comprehension between U.S. and Chinese students. Reading Research Quarterly, 32(2), 162-186.
Guthrie, J., & Wigfield, A. (1997). Reading engagement: A rational for theory and teaching. In Guthrie, J. T., & Wigfield, A. (Eds) Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction. Newark, De: International Reading Association.
Hafiz, F., & Tudor, I. (1989). Extensive reading and the development of language skills. English Language Teaching Journal, 75, 4-11.
Hafiz., F. & Tudor, I. (1990). Graded readers as an input medium in L2 learning. System, 18, 31-42.
Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. Essex: Longman.
Harris, A. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1985). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental and remedial methods. New York: Longman.
Hayashi, K. (1999). Reading strategies and extensive reading in EFL classes. RELC Journal, 30(2), 114-132.
Hedge, T. (1985). Using readers in language teaching. London: Macmillan.
Herman, P., Anderson, R.C., Pearson, P., & Nagy, W. (1987). Incidental acquisition of word meaning from expositions with varied text features. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(3), 263-284.
Horn, V. (1975). Advanced reading: Teaching logical relationships. English Teaching Forum 2, 216-218.
Horowitz, D. (1988). To see our text as others see it: Toward a social sense of coherence. JALT Journal, 10 (2), 91-100.
Hsieh, M. C. (2003). A cause study of English reading comprehension strategies used by junior high students. Unpublished mater’s thesis, National Chiayi University.
Hsu, S. C. (2004). Reading comprehension difficulties and reading strategies of junior high school EFL students in Taiwan. Unpublished master ‘s thesis: National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Huang, C. M., Cheng, Y. X., & Lin, X. Z. (2004). A study of secondary school English teachers’ teaching beliefs toward communicative language teaching approach. Journal of Education Research, 28(4), 21-44.
Huang, H. T. (2003). Effects of graded texts on EFL college students’ incidental vocabulary learning: Text difficulty and exposure amount. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Tsing Hua University.
Huang, J. (1999). An evaluation of the new version of junior high school EFL teaching materials based on the communicative theory model. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Huang, M. M. (2007). The analysis of the influence of extensive reading on learners' reading motivation and reading performance. Unpublished master’s thesis, Dayeh University.
Huang, S. C. (2004). Washback effects of the basic competence English test on EFL teaching in junior high school in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Yunling University of Science & Technology.
Huang, Y. (2005). A study of reading strategy instruction with English picture books. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan.
Huck, C. (1971). Literature in action: Strategies for improving interest and appreciation in literature (pp.37-45). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Hudson, T. (1998). Theoretical perspectives on reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 43-60.
Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hung, C. J. (2007). L2 incidental word knowledge acquisition and retention of a young EFL learner through extensive reading with graded readers. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng Kung University.
Hung, Y. J. (2003). Taiwanese EFL college students’ experience of practicing pleasure reading: Preference, barrier, and attitude. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology.
Hyland, F. (2000). ESL writers and feedback: Giving more autonomy to students. Language Teaching Research, 4 (1), 33-54.
Icoz, N. (1992). Teaching literature: why, what, and how. English Teaching Forum, 30 (1), 10-12.
Ivey, G., & Broaddus, K. (2001). “Just plain reading”: A survey of what makes students want to read in middle school classroom. Reading Research Quarterly 36(4), 350-377.
Janopoulos, M. (1986). The relationship between pleasure reading and second language writing proficiency. TESOL Quarterly 20, 763-786.
Jiang, Y. C. (2002). A study of picture-elicited narratives for developing junior high school students' English writing competence. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Chengchi University.
Juan, L. (2007). An exploratory study of using extensive reading as a remedial program for elementary underachievers. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Taipei Municipal University of Education.
Kao, Y. M. (2004). A study of using extensive reading as a supplement in a senior high school English curriculum. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Tsing Hua University.
Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural though patterns in intercultural education. Language Learning, 16, 1-20.
Kathryn, S., Dawna, L., Joanna, B., Mary, L., & Kitty, J. (2001). Not just for the primary grades: A bibliography of picture books for secondary content teachers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 45(2), 146-153.
Krashen, S. D. (1984). Writing: Research, theory and application. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.
Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman Inc.
Krashen, S. D. (1988). Do we learn to read by reading? The relationship between free reading and reading ability. In D Tannen (Ed.) Linguistics in context: Connecting observation and understanding (pp.269-298). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Krashen, S. D. (1993). Free voluntary reading in school. Emergency Librarian, 21,
Krashen, S. D. (1994a). The Input hypothesis and its rivals. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages, 45-77. London: Academic Press.
Krashen, S. D. (1994b). The pleasure hypothesis: In J. Altis (ED.), Georgetown University round table on language and linguistics, 299-322. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Krashen, S. D. (1995). Principles practice in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon Press.
Krashen, S. D. (2001). Free voluntary reading: Still a very good idea. Selected papers from the tenth international symposium on English teaching. Taipei: Crane Publisher.
Krashen, S. (2003). Dealing with English fever. Selected papers from the twelfth international symposium on English teaching, pp. 100-108. Taipei: Crane.
Krashen, S. (2004). The Power of Reading: Insights from the research. 2nd ed. Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH.
Krashen, S. (2005). The composing process and the academic composition process. Selected Papers from the Fourteenth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 66-78). Taipei: Crane.
Krashen, S., & Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kuo, N. H. (2005). Graded readers and young adult literature in an extensive reading classroom. Unpublished master thesis, National Tsing Hua University.
Lai, E. F. K. (1993). The effect of a summer reading course on reading and writing skills. System, 21, 87-100.
Lai, S. H. (2009). Junior high school students’ responses to motivation and speaking anxiety in an English village environment. Unpublished mater’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Lao, C. Y., & Krashen, S. D. (2000). The impact of popular literature study on literacy development in EFL: More evidence for the power of reading. System, 28, 261-270.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1983). Techniques and principles in language teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
Laycock, L. (1998). A way into a new language and culture. In J. Evans (Ed.). What’s in the picture? Responding to illustrations in picture books (pp. 79-95). London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.
Lee, S. Y. (1998). Effects of introducing free reading and language acquisition theory on students’ attitudes toward the English class. Studies in English Language and Literature, 4, 21-28.
Lerner, J. (2003). Learning disabilities: theories, diagnosis, and teaching strategies (9th ed.). NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Liao, C. C. (1999). The study of textbook and teaching methods usage by secondary school English teachers. Unpublished mater’s thesis. National Cheng Kung University.
Liao, J. H. (2005). Using extensive reading and writing program to promote students’ English proficiency. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chung Cheng University.
Lin, F. C. (2004). The impact of extensive reading on vocational high school students' reading, writing, and learning motivation. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Normal Taiwan University.
Lockhart, C., & Ng, P. (1995). Analyzing talk in ESL peer response groups: Stances, functions, and content. Language learning, 45, 605-655.
Louie, B. Y-Y. (1996). Children’s literature in the People’s Republic of China (reading around the world). Reading Teacher, 49(6), 494-496.
Lu, J. J. (2002). An analysis of the reading comprehension test given in the English subject ability test in Taiwan and its pedagogical implication. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chengchi University.
Maloch, B. (2002). Scaffolding student talk: One teacher’s role in literature discussion group. Reading Research Quarterly, 37(1), 94-112.
Mason, B. (2003). Evidence for the sufficiency of extensive reading the development of grammatical accuracy. Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, Osaka.
Mason, B. (2004). The effect of adding supplementary writing to an extensive reading program. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1(1), 2-16.
Mason, B., & Krashen, S. (1997). Extensive reading in English as a foreign language. System 25, 91-102.
May, F. B. (2001). Unraveling the seven myths of reading. US: Allyn and Bacon.
Mayfield, M. (1994). Thinking for yourself: Developing critical thinking skills through reading writing. Wadsworth, Inc.
McCombs, B. L. (1997). Commentary: Reflections on motivations for reading – through the looking glass of theory, practice, and reader experiences. Educational Psychologist, 32 (2), 125-134.
McQuillan, J. (1997). The effects of incentives on reading. Reading Research and
Instruction, 36, 111-125.
Mitchell, D. (1998). Using children’s literature to spark learning. English Journal, 87(2), 94-97.
Morris, F. A., & Tarone, E. E. (2003). Impact of classroom dynamics on the effectiveness of recasts in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 53(2), 325-368.
Nagy, W., Herman, P., & Anderson, R. (1985). Learning words from contexts. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 233-253.
Norton, D. E. (1995). Through the eyes of a child: An introduction to children’s literature. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Nodelman, P. (1996). The pleasures of children’s literature (2nd ed.). White
Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Nunan, D. (1991). Language teaching methodology: A textbook for teachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nuttall, C. (2005). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. London: Heinemann.
Oliver, M. E. (1976). The effect of high intensity practice on reading comprehension. Reading Improvement, 13, 226-228.
Paris, S. G., Wasik, B. A., & Turner, J. C. (1991). The development of reading strategies. In J. Flood, J. M. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research in the English language arts (pp. 609-635). New York: Macmillan.
Pfordresher, J. (1985). Pleasure in reading. English Journal, 74, 44-46.
Pigada, M., & Schmitt, N. (2006). Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18, 1-28.
Pilgreen, J., & Krashen, S. (1993). Sustained silent reading with English as a second language high school students: Impact on reading compression, reading frequency, and reading enjoyment. School Library Media Quarterly, 22(1), 21-23.
Pino-Silva, J. (1992). Extensive reading: No pain, no gain? English Teaching Forum, 30(2), 48-49.
Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 667-686.
Pintrich, P. R., & Degroot, E. (1990). Motivational and self-regulating learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(2), 33-40.
Printrich, P. R., & Schrauben, D. H., (1992). Students' motivational beliefs and their cognitive engagement in classroom academic task. In Schuck. D. H., & Meece, J. (Eds.) Student Perception in the Classroom (pp.149-183). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Raptis, H. (1997). Is second language reading vocabulary best learned by reading? Canadian Modern Language Review, 53, 566-580.
Rausch, A. S. (2004). Extensive reading: A case study in one junior high school. ETJ Journal, 5(1), 21-2.
Rayner, K. & Pollastsek, A. (1989). Psychology of reading. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:Eribaum.
Reid, J., & Powers, J. (1993). Extending the benefits of small-group collaboration to the ESL writer. TESOL Journal, 2(4), 25-32.
Resnick, L. B. (2000). Literacy in school and out. In M. A. Gallego, & S. Hollingsworth (Eds.), What counts as literacy: Challenging the school standard (pp.27-41). NY: Teachers College Press.
Robb, T.N., & Susser, B. (1989). Extensive reading vs. skill building in an EFL context. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(2), 239-251.
Roebuck, R. E. (2001). Teaching composition in the college level foreign language class: Insights and activities from sociocultural theory. Foreign Language Journal, 34(6), 206-215.
Rosenblatt, L. (1988). Writing and reading: The transactional theory. Reader, 20, 7-13.
Rubin, D. (1993). A practical approach to teaching reading. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Rumelhart, D. (1977). Toward an interactive model of reading. In S. Dornic (Ed.),
Attention and performance. VI. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Sadoski, M. C. (1980). An attitude survey for sustained silent reading programs. Journal of Reading, 23, 721-726.
Sadoski, M. C. (1984). SSR, accountability and effective reading instruction. Reading Horizons, 24(2), 119-123.
Sanacore, J. (1992). Encouraging the lifetime reading habit. Journal of Reading, 35, 474-477.
Scharer, P. L., Peters, D., & Lehman, B. A. (1995). Lessons from grammar school: How can literature use in elementary classroom inform middle school instruction? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 39(1), 28-34.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1997). Developing self-efficacious readers and writers. The role of social and self-regulatory processes. In J. T. Guthrie, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp.34-50). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Sharp, P. A. (1991). Picture books in the adult literacy curriculum. Journal of Reading, 35(3), 216-219.
Shen, H. F. (2005). A study of effects of a GEPT preparative program on students’ English performance. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tainan University of Technology.
Sheu, P. H. (2004). The effect of extensive reading on learner’s ability development. Journal of National Taipei Teachers College, 17(2), 213-228.
Shih, M. M. (1999). More than practicing language: Communicative reading and writing for Asian settings. TESOL Journal, 8(4), 20-25.
Shih, M. M. (2005). Creative curriculum design for extensive reading. Paper presented at the English Teachers’ Swap, Taiwan.
Shin, F. (2001). Motivating students with Goosebumps and other popular books. CSLA Journal (California School Library Association) 25(1), 15-19.
Shohamy, E. (1985). A practical handbook in language testing for the second language teacher. Israel: Tel-Avir University.
Sims, J. (1996). A new perspective: extensive reading for pleasure. The proceedings of the fifth international symposium on English teaching (pp.137-144).Taipei: The Crane Publishing Company.
Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571-581.
Smallwood, B. A. (1991). The literature connection: A read-aloud guide for multicultural classroom. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
Smith, F. (1971). Understanding reading: A psycholinguistic analysis of reading
learning to read. New York; Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Smith, F. (1983). Reading like a writer. Language Arts, 60, 558-567.
Stanovich, K. E. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32-71.
Stein, V. (1990). Exploring the cognition of reading-to-write. In L. Flower, V. Stein, J. Ackerman, M. J. Kantz, K. McCormick, & W. C. Peck (Eds.), Reading-to-write: Exploring a cognitive and social process (pp.3-32). New York: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, J. (1982). Language and culture. EFF Language Quarterly, 15, 10-29.
Stotsky, S. (1983). Research on reading / writing relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. Language Arts, 60, 627-643
Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible out in its development. In S. Gass & C. G. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp.235-253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Swain, M. (1993). The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing aren’t enough. The Canadian Modern Language Review 50, 158-164.
Swanborn, M. S. L. & Glopper, K. (2002). Impact of reading purpose on incidental word learning from context. Language Learning, 52, 95-117.
Tai, C. F. (1995). A study of the extracurricular English reading habits and attitudes of students at one vocational high school and the National Taiwan Junior College of Physical Education. Journal of National Taiwan College of Physical Education, 6, 111-156.
Tekmen, E. A. F. & Daloglu, A. (2006). An investigation of incidental vocabulary acquisition in relation to learner proficiency level and word frequency. Foreign Language Annals, 39(2), 220-243.
Thron, J. R. (1991). Children’s literature: Reading, seeing, watching. Children’s Literature in Education, 22(1), 51-58.
Tierney, R. J., & Readence, J. E. (2000). Reading strategies and practices: A compendium (pp.98-109, pp. 358-362). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Tran, A. (2006). Modified extensive reading for English-language learners. Reading Improvement, 43(4), 173-178.
Tsai, W. (1997). A critical analysis of voluntary reading in English among Taiwanese university students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester, Midland, UK.
Tsai, H. M. (2008). An action research of combing extensive reading and writing teaching. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chaiyi University.
Tsang, W. K. (1996). Comparing the effects of reading and writing on writing performance. Applied Linguistics 17, 210-233.
Turner, J. C. (1997), Starting Right: Strategies for engaging young literacy learners. In Guthrie, J., & Wigfield, A. (Eds.), Reading Engagement: Motivation readers through integrated instruction (pp.183-204). DE: International Reading Association.
Walker, C. (1997). A self access extensive reading project using graded readers (with particular reference to students of English for academic purposes). Reading in a Foreign Language, 11(1), 121-149.
Wang, P. (2009). The Inter-rater Reliability in Scoring Composition. English Language Teaching, 2(3), 39-43.
Waring, R. (1997). Graded and extensive reading-questions and answers. The Language Teacher, 21(5), 9-12.
Watkins, M. W., & Coffey, D. Y. (2004). Reading motivation: Multidimensional and indeterminate. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 110-118.
Wei, C. L. (1996). An investigation of the attitudes of different learning-style DFLL freshmen towards extensive reading. Journal of Taichung Evening School NCHU, 2, 123-152.
White, M. (2007). A good story in 50 words? The Language Teacher, 31(5), 19-20.
Wigfield, A. (1997a). Children’s motivation for reading and reading engagement. In J. T. Guthrie & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 14-33). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Wigfield, A. (1997b). Reading motivation: a domain-specific approach to motivation. Educational Psychologist, 32, 2 59-68
Wigfield, A., & Guthrie J. T. (1997). Relations of children’s motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 420-432.
Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., & McGough, K. (1996). A questionnaire measure of children’s motivations for reading. Instructional Resource No. 22. National Reading Research Center.
Wright, A. (2002). Storytelling with children. Oxford: Oxford University press.
Wu, C. C. (1994). A study of vocabulary reading and the learning and teaching English in Taiwan. International Journal of the Humanities, 61-78.
Wu, H. (2005). A case study of implementing picture books in an EFL class. The Proceedings of 2005 International Conference and Workshop in TEFL & Applied Linguistics (pp.408-416). Taipei: Crane.
Wu, H. H. (2007). Junior high school EFL teachers’ beliefs and practices toward English writing teaching in CLT. Unpublished master’s thesis, Da-Yeh University.
Wu, M. L. (2004). Read to enjoy: A case study using popular fiction in an EFL
class. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tamkang University.
Yan, Y. H. (2004). The effects of cooperative learning on English learning and learning attitudes of junior high EFL students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Yang, A., & Lau, L. (2003). Student Attitudes to the learning of English at secondary and tertiary levels. System, 31, 107-123.
Yang, Y., & Nash, T. (1992). Reading subskills and quantity reading. In M. Yang et al. (Eds.), Selected papers from the Eighth Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the R.O.C. (pp.335-350). Taipei, Taiwan: The Crane.
Yin, M. T. (2004). The impact of pleasure reading and university EFL students’ English reading attitudes. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tunghai University.
You, H. L. (2004). Analysis of the Basic Competence English Test for junior high school. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Yunling University of Science & Technology.
Zhang, W. C. (2003). English teaching in the secondary school in Taiwan: Problems and solutions. Journal of Social Sciences and Philosophy Teaching, 14(2), 113-130.
|Appears in Collections:||[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.