Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/60321


Title: 台灣國際觀光旅館業效率、生產力變動與獲利率之探討
Efficiency, productivity change and profitability in Taiwan's international tourist hotel industry
Authors: 陳麗雪
Chen, Li Hsueh
Contributors: 王國樑
Wang, Kuo Liang
陳麗雪
Chen, Li Hsueh
Keywords: 效率
生產力
獲利率
準固定投入
三階段資料包絡分析法
efficiency
productivity
profitability
quasi-fixed input
three-stage data envelopment analysis
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2013-09-05 14:17:19 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本論文為探討台灣國際觀光旅館產業的實證文章,除第一章的緒論外,三篇相關的文章依序撰寫於二至四章。第二章的實證結果指出在第一階段的未考量準固定與調整後投入的資料包絡分析模型會高估技術與純技術效率值,但會低估規模效率值,因此,驗證考量準固定投入的必要性;第二階段使用隨機邊界分析模型排除外在因素與隨機干擾的影響,實證結果顯示外生變數對投入差額與純技術效率存在顯著的影響,其中,市場集中度與旅館規模對勞動、餐飲支出與其他支出的投入差額存在正向的影響,對純技術效率存在負向的影響;位於風景區對所有的投入差額有負向的影響,對純技術效率有正向的影響;加入國際與/或國內連鎖對勞動與餐飲支出投入差額有正向影響,但對其他支出投入差額有負向影響;SARS對勞動與餐飲支出投入差額有正向影響,對純技術效率有負向影響;金融海嘯對勞動與其他支出投入差額有正向影響,對純技術效率有負向影響;第三階段的效率評估結果顯示技術無效率的主要原因是來自不適當的生產規模,且國際觀光旅館對於技術與規模效率仍有改善空間,此外,傳統的資料包絡分析模型會高估技術與規模效率值,但會低估純技術效率值,因此,驗證使用三階段方法的適當性,最後,以服務團體旅客為主的國際觀光旅館的績效最差。第三章的實證結果顯示:在第一階段,未考量準固定與調整後投入要素的Malmquist生產力指數會低估生產力的變動,因此,驗證考量準固定投入的必要性;第三階段的生產力指數顯示前期的生產力成長已被後期的生產力惡化所取代,生產力的成長或惡化主要來自技術的進步或退步與規模效率的改善或惡化,此外,實證結果亦顯示僅考量準固定投入但未考量調整後投入的Malmquist生產力指數會低估生產力的變動,且是否考量調整後投入會造成所評估的Malmquist生產力指數其背後的因素有所不同,因此,驗證使用三階段方法的適當性;最後,以服務團體旅客為主的國際觀光旅館的生產力有較佳的改善,且雖然服務對象的不同使得生產力變動的背後因素有所不同,但規模效率的變動皆扮演重要的角色。第四章的實證結果顯示:規模效率假說在台灣國際觀光旅館產業中是被支持的;以服務個人旅客為主與同時服務團體與個人旅客對獲利率有負向的影響;SARS與金融海嘯對獲利率有負向的影響。
The dissertation is a collection of three separate but related papers which are devoted to the empirical studies of the international tourist hotel industry in Taiwan. In addition to the introduction in chapter 1, three papers are presented in chapters 2 to 4, respectively. The empirical results in chapter 2 indicate that, in the first stage, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) models without the quasi-fixed and adjusted inputs overestimate the technical and pure technical efficiencies, but underestimate the scale efficiency of international tourist hotels so that the necessity of considering the existence of the quasi-fixed input is justified. The second stage uses the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model to purge the effects from exogenous variables and statistical noise. The SFA results show that the exogenous variables have significant influences on input slacks and pure technical efficiency. The degree of market concentration and hotel size have positive impacts on labor, food and beverage (F&B) expense and operating expense input slacks, as well as have negative impacts on pure technical efficiency. An international tourist hotel in the resort area has negative relationships with all input slacks and a positive relationship with pure technical efficiency. An international tourist hotel participating in the international and/or domestic hotel chain has positive relationships with labor and F&B expense input slacks, but has a negative relationship with other expense. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has positive effects on labor and F&B expense input slacks and has a negative effect on pure technical efficiency. The financial tsunami has positive effects on labor and other expense input slacks and has a negative effect on pure technical efficiency. After adjusting the variable input data from the SFA results in the second stage, the efficiency-evaluation results in the third stage show that the technical inefficiency mainly results from the inappropriate production scale. In addition, international tourist hotels have an ample space to improve their technical and scale efficiencies. The efficiency-evaluation results also show that the conventional DEA models overestimate the technical and scale efficiencies, but underestimate the pure technical efficiency of international tourist hotels so that the usage of the three-stage approach is justified. Finally, international tourist hotels which mainly receive group visitors have the worst performance. In chapter 3, the empirical results show that, in the first stage, the Malmquist index without the quasi-fixed and adjusted inputs underestimates the productivity change so as to justify the necessity of considering the existence of quasi-fixed input. After adjusting the variable input data from the SFA results in the second stage, the productivity index in the third stage shows that the initial increase in productivity has been compensated by a decrease. The productivity growth or deterioration mainly results from the technological progress or regress and the scale efficiency improvement or deterioration. The results also show that the Malmquist index with the quasi-fixed input and without adjusted inputs underestimates the productivity change. The key factors of the productivity changes estimated by the Malmquist productivity index with the quasi-fixed and adjusted inputs are significantly different from those estimated by the Malmquist productivity index with the quasi-fixed input and without adjusted inputs so as to justify the usage of the three-stage approach. Finally, international tourist hotels with mainly receiving group visitors have the better improvement of productivity. The sources of productivity changes among receiving different types of visitors are different, but the scale efficiency change plays an important role in all types. In chapter 4, the empirical results indicate that the scale efficiency hypothesis is supported in Taiwan’s international tourist hotel industry. An international tourist hotel that mainly receives individual visitors and an international tourist hotel that simultaneously receives group and individual visitors have negative impacts on profitability. SARS and financial tsunami have negative effects on profitability.
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Description: 博士
國立政治大學
經濟學系
93258502
100
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