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Title: 價值多元論與自由主義─兼論伯林的政治理論方法論
Other Titles: Taking Berlin's Methodology Seriously: An Interpretation of Value Pluralism and Liberalism
Authors: 葉浩
Contributors: 政治系
Keywords: 價值多元論;自由主義;消極自由;積極自由;一元論;同情理解
value pluralism;liberalism;negative liberty;positive liberty;monism;empathy
Date: 2011.12
Issue Date: 2013-12-13 17:27:58 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 伯林提倡價值多元論,同時宣稱支持自由主義。諸多批評者主張,價值多元論本身無法賦予特定價值優先性,所以邏輯上無法支持自由主義,抑或該主義的核心價值。另一方面,也有學者認為,伯林的價值多元論在邏輯上與主流自由主義理論相斥,甚至可以作為一種有別傳統的自由主義之理論基礎。然而,雙方皆無視於伯林的強調,價值多元論與自由主義之間並無邏輯的必然關連性。本文主張,伯林的政治思想必須依循他所倡議的方法論來理解,一方面將多元論與一元論理解為不可共量的思維模式,不僅對於何謂「價值」與「理性」的理解不同,對於人類作為道德行為者的根本看法也南轅北轍,一方面將〈兩種自由概念〉一文理解成於思想的最抽象層次上對於人類自由的捍衛,進而指出價值多元論必然否定教條式的自由主義,但卻蘊含一種「嚴以律己、寬以待人」的態度,也就是古典自由主義精神的展現。據此詮釋,伯林從事政治思想史的真正意圖,乃在於引導「刺蝟」看見多元價值之存在─他一生所呼籲的「同情理解」,也就是「狐狸」的邀請。
Isaiah Berlin is well known to have advocated value pluralism and supported liberalism. Many critics have argued that value pluralism by logic cannot prioritize any particular value, and therefore cannot give support to liberalism. By contrast, followers of Berlin have pointed out that value pluralism logically runs against todays mainstream liberalism, but it can serve as the foundation for a new form of liberalism. Yet neither of them have taken seriously Berlins statement that the relations between value pluralism and liberalism are not logical connections.Contending that Berlins political thought can only be fully understood in light of the methodology proposed by him, this article is meant to read his writings strictly in his own terms. The result of this reading is that Berlins value pluralism and what he termed as monism are two irreconcilable visions of the world-their differences run as deep as how value and rationality may be understood, and ultimately what counts as a free moral agent. And understanding as such paves the way for us to interpret Berlins distinction between positive and negative liberty as a defence for human freedom at the most abstract level of thought, as well as a to appreciate value pluralism as a powerful argument against any form of ideology, including doctrinaire liberalism. In the end, it will be clear that value pluralism is an extrapolation of his vision of the world, which in itself is an expression of tolerant and self-critical spirit- that is, undeniably a liberal mentality. Only then could we truly understand Berlins call for empathy and his life-long engagement with writing history of ideas as a foxs strategy- to convert hedgehogs into value pluralists.
Relation: 政治與社會哲學評論, 39,58-112
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 期刊論文

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