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Title: 晉代佛經和《搜神記》中的「來/去」──從構詞看當時的語言規律
Other Titles: The Morphological Rules of LAI/QU in Buddhist Texts and SOUSHENJI
Authors: 竺家寧
Chu, Chia-ning
Contributors: 中文系
Keywords: 搜神記;晉代佛經;漢語動詞;動補結構
SOUSHENJI;Buddhist texts;Ancient Chinese;VC-structure
Date: 2004-06
Issue Date: 2013-12-27 14:31:02 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文取《搜神記》的語言和西晉佛經作客觀的比較,作全面的、窮盡式的描寫,目的不在於考證《搜神記》的時代問題,而在於透過這兩個表示相對概念的常用字,了解這兩種時代相近的材料當中的具體狀況,觀察它們的異同,以提供漢語史研究的參考。我們可以歸納出「來」字意義上的兩個特性:表時間概念、表空間的活動。晉代漢語的「來」字以前者為主。《搜神記》表現了「來」字作為後綴的強大構詞力,它在構詞上是一個表時間概念的後綴。「去」字的基本用法是作單音節動詞。早期的意義是「離開」,後來演變為「前往」。西晉佛經「去」字出現最多的例子是作單音節動詞,不及物。但「去」字居於後位的複合詞,我們認為已經屬於動補結構,「去」的意義已經虛化,至少已經泛化。所以它能夠自由的和多種動詞相結合。西晉佛經組成複合詞「過去」,表示時間概念,修飾後面的名詞,是最常出現的用語。《搜神記》則無此用語。西晉佛經還有一種《搜神記》所沒有的構詞,就是「去V」的動詞並列式。文末,我們把西晉佛經和《搜神記》「來、去」的語法狀況做成一個對照表,以顯示其中的異同。
This article take SOUSHENJI of Jin Dynasty to compare the Buddhist texts in the area of verb LAI/QU . The purpose is to understand its grammatical function in those days and to describe the similarities and dissimilarities in language usage between two materials. This research will provide a better understanding of history and evolution of Chinese language. The early meaning of QU is ‘ to leave; to depart from’, it changed in meaning and to become ‘to go to; to bound for’ later on. Then, it become ‘empty’ gradually in meaning and turn into a ‘function word’. It combine freely with many different verbs in Jin languge. In Buddhist texts of Jin Dynasty, it form a compound word ‘GUOQU’ to express a time concept, to modify the noun behind it. But there are no such usage found in SOUSHENJI. At the ending of this article, we conclude a table to display the grammaticle situation between SOUSHENJI and Buddhist texts of Jin Dynasty.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 1, 1-48
Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature National Chengchi University, 1, 1-48
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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