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Title: 中共建政後周恩來與鄧小平關係之研究(1949-1976)
Other Titles: The Relationship between Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping after the Founding of the People’s Republic of China (1949-1976)
Authors: 鍾延麟
Chung, Yen-lin
Contributors: 東亞所
Keywords: 周恩來;鄧小平;毛澤東;中共黨史;中共高層政治
Zhou Enlai;Deng Xizoping;Mao Zedong;Chinese communist party history;Chinese elite politics
Date: 2009-11
Issue Date: 2014-01-08 10:47:55 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 周恩來與鄧小平作為中共黨國重要的領導人,長時一起參與中共的重大決策、政策以及事件。然而,有關中共建政後的周、鄧兩人關係議題,迄今仍欠缺系統而深入的研究。在文獻分析並輔以訪談的基礎上,本文認為:周恩來、鄧小平雖已相識多年,對對方經歷與特質也有深度認識,但是兩人的政治關係,在中共建政後不同時期的發展與變化,最主要受到毛澤東主導的政治格局的影響與制約。在毛的扶植下,鄧的權位從1950年代中期急遽竄升;周卻因「反冒進」問題遭毛批判。毛在發動「大躍進」時,降低周在經濟事務上的地位,卻改要鄧擔負此一新經濟發展戰略的主要執行者的角色,在毛的安排下,更出現鄧之中央書記處領導周之國務院的情況。直至1966年「文革」以前的周鄧關係,皆在此新職權框架下發展。在「文革」之前,政策上,周、鄧戮力推行毛澤東激進的內、外政策主張,但兩人因共同經手處理「大躍進」後的危局,彼此政治傾向逐漸趨近、較為務實;往來上,周知鄧為毛所器重之人,對之看好也願予支持;鄧對周一向尊重,重視其所提意見。「文革」開始後,鄧遭毛離棄,周在政治上唯能與之劃清,兩人關係因而中斷、停滯。林彪倒臺後,毛決定再次起用鄧,周既促成鄧的政治復出,更助其在「文革」激進派環伺下順利立足。此時期周、鄧因目標一致與共同政敵明確而關係緊密,雖然兩人面對政治挑戰的策略有別。兩人關係將屆尾聲時,周病入膏肓,鄧也因操之過急觸怒毛而失寵,未幾即第二次被打倒。值得一提的是,周鄧關係在受毛因素影響的同時,在不同時期也不免受到當時其他實力派人物的影響。周鄧關係的歷史意義與作用方面,「文革」前兩人保持信任、相互協調的關係,有助中共高層政治的穩定,這先後表現在:對高崗問題的順利解決;「大躍進」前後高層政治的權力分配雖有變化(主要表現在周、鄧之間),但仍穩健運行鮮有摩擦,其負面後果是兩人配合以奉行毛的偏差政策主張。「文革」中,兩人互相扶持、縝密合作的關係,既一度有效抑制激進派別的得勢,也有力地集結了對運動有所疑慮的力量,這對於「極左」人士在毛身故後不久即慘遭清洗,立下了重要的基礎。最後,對於毛以外的中共領導人彼此間之平行關係的研究視角與議題方向,本文亦有開展性的意義。
Studying the relationship between Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping between 1949 and 1976 is crucial to understanding Chinese politics because both Zhou and Deng were very important political figures who actively participated at the highest levels of the Chinese Communist Party’s decision-making and policy-implementing processes. During the decade before the Cultural Revolution, Zhou mainly acted as premier (head of the government) while Deng mainly served as the Party general secretary in charge of the daily work of the Party on behalf of the Party center. How did these two crucial positions interact with each other? When the CCP launched the Great Leap Forward in 1958, the working relations and relative political power between Zhou and Deng underwent adjustment in order to carry out the principle of “the Party takes command of the government,” and to enhance the coordination between these two institutions. Prior to the Cultural Revolution, Zhou and Deng had reached consensus over issues related to the running of the party-state, and they not only cooperated well but also created much mutual respect and trust during political operations and interactions. This paper will show that the working experiences and mutual understanding that Zhou and Deng fostered during this time had much impact on Chinese politics during the late Cultural Revolution. Zhou tried his best to support Deng, and they worked together to deal with the radicals. In addition, it is noteworthy that the relationship between Zhou and Deng before and during the Cultural Revolution could not evade the influence of Mao Zedong.
Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報, 32, 169-220
The Journal of History, 32, 169-220
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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