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Title: 食品政治:“誰”左右了國際食品安全的標準?
Other Titles: Food Politics: Who Controls International Food Safety Standards?
Authors: 譚偉恩;蔡育岱
Contributors: 外交系
Keywords: 國際標準;食品安全;食品法典委員會;世界動物衛生組織;新自由制度主義
International Standards;Food Safety;CAC;OIE;Neoliberal Institutionalism
Date: 2009-12
Issue Date: 2014-06-04 11:26:09 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 因黑心食品或問題食品而引發的糾紛已漸成爲近年來國家間最具爭議的貿易問題,並同時涉及環境安全與公共衛生等領域。由於當今多數國家接受了資本主義與市場經濟,因此食品安全(food safety)與反映全球化最爲深刻的國際貿易產生了密切關聯,WTO也從而成爲調和此兩者緊張關係的重要國際機構。食品安全與貿易間的關係除了消費者的健康和國家經貿利益之外,更有其「政治性」的一面。儘管CAC或OIE等國際組織是目前負責商訂全球食品安全標準的權威性機構,並且其制訂的標準爲WTO解決食品貿易紛爭的重要依據,但過程中「政治性」卻鮮少爲人所關注。本文透過分析EC/EU在食品添加物規範上的相關作爲和美國對於牛肉出口問題的立場,對國際性的食品安全標準能夠制約主權國家行爲之觀點提出質疑,並進一步探究「誰」是真正左右國際食品安全標準的行爲者。本文將從四個面向來考慮所擬研究之議題:(1)國際制度與國家行爲的關係;(2)國家能力(capacity)與接受CAC標準與否的關聯;(3)物質性的貿易利益對於國際標準的影響;(4)公共衛生與國民健康的重要性。另外,文中嘗試揭露技術政治(technopolitics)對於食品安全標準的影響。結論部分則悲觀地指出,攸關每個人日常生活的食品安全恐將逐漸成爲一種「類奢侈財」(semi-luxury goods),國力相對較弱的進口國與經濟弱者不但在物質生活層面無法受利於全球化,其公共衛生與飲食健康的安全利益也恐遭到犧牲。
The issue of adulturated food has been one of the most important sources of international trade conflict over recent years. Debates surrounding food safety involve sensitive issues such as environmental security and public health. Reflecting the reality of globalization, the issue of food safety is inseparable from international trade issues. The WTO has become the key mechanism mitigating the tension between public health and trade liberalization.Beyond the issues of health and trade, the relationship between food safety and the exchange of food products has other political features. Although global food safety standards established by CAC and OIE have been adopted as the basis for WTO dispute resolution, the political aspects of this process has been overlooked by in academia for a long time.This paper examines food safety regulations in EC/EU states and the American position on its beef exports. It questions whether there are binding food safety standards that can control the behavior of sovereign states, and asks who influences these standards. The paper is focused on the following issue areas: (1) international institutions and state behavior; (2) the connection between state capacity and acceptance of ISFS standards; (3) the effect of trade interests on the ISFS; (4) public health issues.The paper also looks at the impact of technopolitics on food safety and comes to the pessimistic conclusion that food safety may eventually become a kind of semi-luxury good, with obvious negative impact on both the material wealth and public health of poorer countries.
Relation: 政治科學論叢,42,1-42
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 期刊論文

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