Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
China’s Energy Security Policy in the Greater Middle East
|Issue Date:||2014-07-14 11:33:10 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||Global energy politics has undergone a structural change in recent years. In general terms, production and consumption centers have been realigned along with changes in the cores of manufacturing and economic development. Energy consumption has become denser in East Asia whereas the former consumption center, North America, has achieved greater independency thanks to new technologies, stagnant or declining consumption and further shift toward service-based and less energy-intensive industries. The center of global energy production, in the meanwhile, remains to be the Middle East (ME), specifically the Persian Gulf, however, its dominant status has been undermined recently with decreasing energy dependency of the United States. In this structural shift of energy geopolitics, thus, China and the U.S. have witnessed their positions vis-à-vis the Middle East began to shift.|
Essentially, this research offers critical policy analysis in a comparative setting. It attempts to empirically evaluate the Chinese and U.S. foreign policy strategies in the Greater Middle East and investigate how they relate to each other. From this analysis, it hopes to reach conclusions that will shed light on the China-U.S. relationship in the Middle East. Then, drawing on the conclusions reached, it offers policy recommendations on how to prevent a great power confrontation in the Middle East in order to better manage the regional peace, considering at once Beijing’s energy and Washington’s geopolitical interests. Thus, this it offers a ‘quantitative first, qualitative primary’ perspective. Qualitatively, comprehensive policy investigation, historical narrative and in-depth interviews assist the research. Quantitatively, extensive data on energy and energy related economic and military activity are analyzed.
In a nutshell, this research is comparative in its scope, focusing on China’s relations with key regional energy producers in the Greater Middle East. By incorporating a critical analysis of the recent geopolitical developments, it puts China’s growing energy dependency and engagement in the larger context of China-U.S. competition and cooperation for greater influence in the region and speculates on how this would impact the regional and global peace. More specifically, this research contributes to the existing literature by offering a comprehensive analysis on China’s energy security policy in the Middle East.
Books and Articles:
Al-Sudairi, Mohammed Turki. “Sino-Saudi Relations: An Economic History,” Gulf Research Center (GRC), August 2012.
Alessi, Christopher and Stephanie Hanson, “Expanding China-Africa Oil Ties,” Council on Foreign Relations, February 8, 2012.
Alterman, John B. and John W. Garver, The Vital Triangle: China, the United States, and the Middle East, CSIS, 2008.
Asia-Pacific Energy Research Center (APERC). “A Quest for Energy Security in the 21st Century,” Institute of Energy Economics, 2007, Japan.
Baker, Rodger and Zhixing Zhang, “The Paradox of China's Naval Strategy,” Stratfor, July 17, 2012.
Bausso, Ron. “International Energy Agency to offer China room in strategic talks,” Reuters, April 4, 2013.
Beng, Phar Kim and Vic Y.W. Li. “China’s Energy Dependence on the Middle East: Boon or Bane for Asian Security?” The China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 3, no. 3, (2005): 19-26.
Bielecki, Janusz. “Energy Security: Is the Wolf at the Door?” The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 42, (2002): 235–250.
Bill, A. James “Iran and the United States: A Clash of Hegemonies,” Middle East Report 212, (Fall 1999): 44-46.
Blanchard, Ben. “Eyeing oil, Hu congratulates South Sudan,” Reuters, July 11, 2011.
Blank, Stephen. “Russia’s Energy Deals with East Asia: Who Wins?” The Diplomat, July 03, 2013.
Bubalo, Anthony and Mark P. Thrilwell. “Energy Insecurity: China, India, and Middle East Oil,” Lowy Institute Issue Brief, (December 2004): 1-20.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce. “Pride of Place: The Origins of German Hegemony,” World Politics 43, (1990): 28-52.
Calabrese, John, “China and the Persian Gulf: Energy and Security,” The Middle East Journal 52, 3, (Summer, 1998): 351-366.
CATO, “US Policy in the Middle East,” CATO Handbook for Policymakers, 2008.
Chan, Gerald, Pak K. Lee, and Lai-ha Chan. China Engages Global Governance: A New World Order in the Making? (Routledge: New York, NY): 2012.
Chan, Steve. “Exploring Puzzles in Power-Transition Theory: Implications for Sino-American Relations,” Security Studies 13, No. 3, (Spring 2004): 103-141.
__________. “Is There a Power Transition between the US and China? The Different Faces of National Power,” Asian Survey 45, No. 5, (2005): 126-154.
__________. China, the US, and the Power-Transition Theory: A Critique, (London: Routledge): 2008.
Chang, Felix K. “Chinese Energy and Asian Security,” Orbis, (Spring, 2001): 211-240.
Chang, Frank. “Who Defines the International Community?” The Diplomat, September 12, 2012.
Chang, Parris H. “China's Policy Toward Iran And The Middle East,” JINSA, November 24, 2009.
Chen, Shaofeng. “Motivations behind China’s Foreign Oil Quest: A Perspective from the Chinese Government and the Oil Companies,” Journal of Chinese Political Science 13, No. 1 (2008): 600-625..
Chen, James. “The Emergence of China in the Middle East,” Institute of National Strategic Studies (INSS) (December, 2011): 1-8.
Chow, Edward. “Central Asia’s Pipelines: Field of Dreams and Reality,” in Pipeline Politics in Asia: The Intersection of Demand, Energy Markets, and Supply Routes, NBR Special Report 23, September 2010.
Cole, D. Bernard. “Chinese Naval Modernization and Energy Security,” A paper prepared for the Institute for National Strategic Studies National Defense University 2006 Pacific Symposium Washington, D.C. June 20, 2006.
___________. “The Future Chinese Carrier Force,” US Naval Institute News (USNI), May 8, 2013.
___________. “The energy factor in Chinese maritime strategy,” in Gabriel Collins, Andrew Erickson, Lyle Goldstein and William Murray (eds) China’s Energy Strategy: the Impact on China’s Maritime Policies (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2008).
Constantin, Christian. “China’s Conception of Energy Security: Sources and International Impacts,” University of British Colombia, Working Paper No. 43, (March 2005): 1-41.
Cropsey, Seth and Arthur Milikh. “Mahan’s Naval Strategy: China Learned It. Will America Forget It?” World Affairs Journal, March/April 2012.
Currier L. Carrie and Monachehr Dorraj. Lubricated with Oil: Iran-China Relations in a Changing World, Middle East Policy Council Journal, 15, No. 2, (January 2013): 66–80.
Currier, Carrie Liu and Manochehr Dorraj, China's Energy Relations with the Developing World, The Continuum International Publishing Group, New York, 2011.
Cuthbert, Randall. “North Korea: The Potential Application of Multi-Track Diplomacy to Conflict Resolution and Peace Building,” The Institute for Multi-track Diplomacy Occasional Paper 16, April 2005.
Dalacoura, Katerina. “US Democracy Promotion in the Arab World since 11 September 2001: a Critique,” International Affairs 81, 5, (2005): 963-979.
Danilovic, Vesna. “Balance of Power and Power Shifts: Global Interests at Stake,” in When the Stakes Are High: Deterrence and Conflict among Major Powers (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor): 2003.
Degang, Sun & Yahia Zoubir. “From Hard Military Bases to Soft Military Presence: US Military Deployment in Iraq Reassessed,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6, no. 3, (2012): 85-106.
Deyermond, Ruth. “MatrioshkaHegemony? Multi-Levelled Hegemonic Competition and Security in Post-Soviet Central Asia,” Review of International Studies 35, (2009), 151–173.
De Soysa, I., J. R. O’Neal and D. Lalman. “Testing Power Transition Theory USing Alternative Measures of National Capabilities,” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, No. 4, (1997): 509-528.
Dixon, Peter and Mark Simmons, “The Role of Track-Two Initiatives in Sudanese Peace Processes,” Concordis International, 2006.
Downing, Brian M. “US, China in Sudan Great Game.” Asia Times, Nov 15, 2011.
Downs, Erica and Maloney, Suzanne, “Getting China to Sanction Iran: The Chinese-Iranian Oil Connection,” Foreign Affairs 90 No. 2 (March-April 2011): 15-21.
Downs, Erica “Cooperating with China on Iran,” The German Marshal Fund of the United States Policy Brief, 2012.
_________. How Oil Fuels Sino-US Fires. Business Week, September 4, 2006.
Dueck, Colin and Takeyh, Ray. Iran's Nuclear Challenge, Political Science Quarterly 122, No. 2, (2007): 189-205.
Dziadosz, Alexander. “Special Report: South Sudan's Chinese oil puzzle,” Reuters, Nov 14, 2012.
Efird, Brian; Kugler, Jacek; Genna and Gaspare M. Claremont. “From War to Integration: Generalizing the Dynamics of Power Transition,” Working paper series // Claremont Institute for Economic Policy Studies, No. 2002-3.
Elder, Linda and Richard Paul.The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools, The Foundation for Critical Thinking: CA, 2004.
Erickson, Andrew and Lyle Goldstein. “Gunboats for Beijing’s New Grand Canals? Probing the Intersection of Beijing’s Naval and Oil Security Policies,” Naval War College Review 62, 2 (Spring 2009): 43-76.
Feigenbaum, Evan A. “China's Military Posture and the New Economic Geopolitics,” Prepared in conjunction with an energy study sponsored by the Center for International Political Economy and the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, 2004.
Fisher, Eva. “Completion of the ESPO oil pipeline connects Siberia to the Pacific Ocean,” Centre for Eastern Studies, 2013.
Fradk, Hillel. 2005. “The ‘Greater’ Middle East: The New Geopolitical Environment and Its Implications for Obama Administration Policies,” Hudson Institute (Date not indicated).
Friedberg, Aaron L. The Future of US-China Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable? International Security 30, 2, (2005): 7-45.
Friedman, Edward. “Power Transition Theory: A Challenge to the Peaceful Rise of World Power China,” in China’s Rise – Threat or Opportunity?” ed. Herbert S. Yee, (Routledge: London & New York): 2011.
_________. “How Economic Superpower China Could Transform Africa,” Journal of Chinese Political Science 14, No. 1, (2008): 1-20.
Garnaut, John. “Xi’s War Drums,” Foreign Policy, May/June 2013.
Garver, W. John. China and Iran: Ancient Partners in a Post-Imperial World (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press):2006.
_________.“Is China Playing a Dual Game in Iran?” The Washington Quarterly 34, 1: 76.
Ghafouri, Mahmoud, “China’s Policy in the Persian Gulf,” Middle East Policy 16, no. 2, (Summer 2009).
Glaser, Charles. “Will China's Rise Lead to War? Why Realism Does Not Mean Pessimism?” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011.
Glaser, Bonnie S and Medeiros Evan S. “The Changing Ecology of Foreign Policy-Making in China: The Ascension and Demise of the Theory of ‘Peaceful Rise,’” The China Quarterly 190, (2007): 291-310.
Gilpin, Robert. War and Change in International Relations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 1981.
Goldstein, Avery. “Power Transitions, Institutions, and China’s Rise in East Asia: Theoretical Expectations and Evidence,” The Journal of Strategic Studies 30, No. 4-5, (October 2007): 639-682.
Gooch, John. “Maritime Command: Mahan and Corbett,” in Seapower and Strategy, eds. Colin S. Gray and Roger W. Barnett (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press): 1989.
Gordon, Steward. When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks Who Created the "Riches of the "East," (Da Capo Press): 2007.
Gou, Sizhi. “The Business Development of China’s National Oil Companies: The Government to Business Relationship in China,” Prepared in Conjunction with an Energy Study the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy and Japan Petroleum Energy Center, Rice University, March 2007.
Hajjar, Sami G. “US Military Presence in the Gulf: Challenges and Prospects,” The Strategic Studies Institute, March 2002.
Harold, Scott and Alireza Nader. “China and Iran: Economic, Political, and Military Relations,” RAND Corporation, 2012.
Harris, Stuart. “Global and Regional Orders and the Changing Geopolitics of Energy,” Australian Journal of International Affairs 64, No. 2, April 2010.
Hartnett, M. Daniel and Frederic Vellucci, “Toward a Maritime Security Strategy: An Analysis of Chinese Views Since the Early 1990s,” In The Chinese Navy: Expanding Capabilities, Evolving Roles, ed. Philip C. Saunders, et al., National Defense University Press for the Center for Study of Chinese Military Affairs Institute for National Strategic Studies, Washington D.C., (2011): 97-98
Hanre, John. “Tail of the Ox or Head of the Rooster” Chinese Security 4, No. 2, Spring 2008.
Hazbun, Waleed. “US Policy and the Geopolitics of Insecurity in the Arab World,” Geopolitics 15 (2010): 239–262.
Hilali, A. Z., “China and the Middle East: The Quest for Influence,” Journal of Third World Studies, 20, 1 (Spring 2003).
Hodge C. Carl and Cathal J. Nolan eds., US Presidents and Foreign Policy: From 1789 to the Present, (California: ABC Clio): 2007.
Holmes, R. James. “What Makes China “Mahanian?” The Diplomat, November 18, 2011.
Holmes, James and Toshi Yoshihara, “A Chinese Turn to Mahan?” China Brief 9, No. 13, June 24, 2009.
Holmes, James and Toshi Yoshihara, “China’s naval ambitions in the Indian Ocean,” in Gabriel Collins, Andrew Erickson, Lyle Goldstein and William Murray (eds), China’s energy strategy: the impact on China’s maritime policies (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2008).
Huang, Cary. “As China's navy grows, end of Deng's dictum of keeping a low profile?” South China Morning Post, 04 January, 2013.
Huwaidin, M. B. China's Relations with Arabia and the Gulf (London: Routledge-Curzon): 2002.
International Crisis Group. The Iran Nuclear Issue: The View from Beijing.’ International Crisis Group Asia Briefing 100, (February 2010).
Jaffe, Amy Myers and Ronald Soligo. “Militarization of Energy: Geopolitical Threats to the Global Energy System,” Prepared in Conjunction with An Energy Study Sponsored by The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy and the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, May 2008.
Jaffe, Amy Myers and Steven W. Lewis. “Beijing’s Oil Diplomacy,” Survival 44, no. 1, (Spring 2002): 115–134.
Jervis, Robert. “Understanding the Bush Doctrine,” Political Science Quarterly 118, No. 3 (2003): 365-388.
Jiang, Julie and Jonathan Sinton. “Overseas Investments by Chinese National Oil Companies: Assessing the Drivers and Impacts,” IEA Information Paper, 2011.
Johnston, Alastair Lain. “Is China a Status Quo Power?” International Security 27, No. 4, (Spring 2003): 5-56.
Kaplan, D. Robert. The Geography of Chinese Power: How Far Can Beijing Reach on Land and at Sea?” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2010.
_________. “China's Naval Rise, Stratfor, June 27, 2012
Kasting, Nori and Brandon Fite. US and Iran Strategic Competition: The Impact of China and Russia. Center for Strategic and International Studies, (November 2012): 1-37.
Kemenade, Willem Van. “Iran’s Relations with China and the West: Cooperation and Confrontation in Asia.” Netherlands Institute of International Relations, (November 2009).
Kennedy, M. Paul. The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery, 2nd ed. (Amherst, NY: Humanity Books): 2006.
Keohane, Joseph. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy, New Jersey: Princeton University Press): 1984.
Kent, Ann E. Beyond Compliance: China, International Organizations, and Global Security (Singapore: NUS Press): 2009.
Komiss, William and LaVar Huntzinger. “The Economic Implications of Disruptions to Maritime Oil Chokepoints,” CNA Analysis, 2011.
Kruyt, Bert, D. P. vanVuuren, H. J. M. deVries and H. Groenenberg. “Indicators for Energy Security,” Energy Policy 37, (2009): 2166–2181.
Kugler, Jacek and Douglas Lemke. Parity and War, (The University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor): 1996.
Kugler, Jacek and Kenneth Organski. “The Power Transition: A Retrospective and Prospective Evaluation,” in Handbook of War Studies I, ed. Manus Midlarsky, (Routledge: New York): 1989.
Kumar, Rupesinghe. “Multi-Track Diplomacy: and the Sustainable Route to Conflict Resolution,” Culture, Resources and Conflicts 19, No. 3, (Fall 1995).
Lahrici, Kamilia. “Arab uprisings bring opportunities to China,” Your Middle East, August 14, 2013.
Lai, David. The United States and China in Power Transition, US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, 2011.
Lai, Hongyi Harry. “China’s Oil Diplomacy: Is It a Global Security Threat?” Third World Quarterly, 28, No. 3, (2007): 519-537.
Lebow, Richard Ned and Benjamin Valentino. “Lost in Transition: A Critical Analysis of Power Transition Theory,” International Relations 23, (2009): 389-410.
Lee, Henry and Dan Shalmon. "Searching for Oil: China's Oil Initiatives in the Middle East." Discussion Paper, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, January 2007.
Lee, John. “China’s Geostrategic Search for Oil,” The Washington Quarterly 35, 3, (2012): 75-92.
Lee, Pak K. “China’s Quest for Oil Security: Oil (Wars) in the Pipeline?” The Pacific Review 18, No. 2, (2005): 265-301.
Legro, Jeffrey W. “What China will Want: The Future Intentions of a Rising Power,” Perspectives on Politics 53, (2007): 515-534.
Lei, Wu. “The Oil Politics & Geopolitical Risks with China “Going out” Strategy toward the Greater Middle East,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6, No. 3, (2012): 58- 84.
Lei, Wu and Liu Xuejun. “China or the United States: Which Threatens Energy Security?” OPEC Review, 2007.
Lemke, Douglas. “The Continuation of History: Power Transition Theory and the End of the Cold War,” Journal of Peace Research 34, No. 1 (February, 1997): 23-36.
Leung, Guy C.K. “China’s Energy Security: Perception and Reality,” Energy Policy 39, (2011): 1330–1337.
_________. “China’s oil use, 1990–2008,” Energy Policy 38, (2010): 932–944.
Leverett, Flynt and Jeffrey Bader. “Managing China-US Energy Competition in the Middle East,” The Washington Quarterly 29, No: 1, (Winter 2006): 187-201.
Lewis, Jeffrey and Philip Maxon. “The Proliferation Security Initiative,” Maritime Security (2010): 35-43.
Lewis, Stewen W. “Energy Security: Implications for US-China-Middle East Relations,” Rice University, 2005.
_________. “China and Energy Security in Asia,” Paper prepared for the 2008 Northeast Asia Energy Outlook Seminar, Korea Economic Institute Policy Forum, Washington, DC, May 6, 2008.
Li, Xiaofei. “Chinese Political Transition Makes Change Possible in Energy Approach,” Oil & Gas Journal, February 2013.
Li, Xin. “The Partition of Sudan and Its Impact on China’s Oil Interests,” Contemporary International Relations 21, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 2011).
Li, Nan. “The Evolution of China’s Naval Strategy and Capabilities: From “Near Coast” and “Near Seas” to “Far Seas,” In The Chinese Navy: Expanding Capabilities, Evolving Roles, ed. Philip C. Saunders, et al., National Defense University Press for the Center for Study of Chinese Military Affairs Institute for National Strategic Studies, Washington D.C., 2011.
Lieberthal, Kenneth and Mikkal Herberg, “China’s Search for Energy Security: Implications for US Policy,” NBR Analysis 17, No. 1, (April 2006).
Lin, Christina Y. “China, Iran and North Korea Alliance,” Middle East Review of International Affairs (March, 2010).
Ma, Lirong. “China’s Cultural and Public Diplomacy to Countries in the Middle East,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4, No. 2, (2010): 32-43.
Ma, Linwei, Feng Fu, Zheng Li and Pei Liu. “Oil Development in China: Current Status and Future Trends,” Energy Policy 45, (2012): 43-53.
Ma, Hengyun, Les Oxleyb, John Gibsonc. “China's Energy Situation in the New Millennium,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13, no. 8, (October 2009): 1781–1799.
Machar, Riek. “South Sudan: A History of Political Domination – A Case of Self-Determination,” University of Pennsylvania – African Studies Center, 1995.
Mearsheimer, John. “China’s Unpeaceful Rise,” Current History 105, 2006.
_________. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New York: W.W. Norton): 2001.
Mbanje, Bowden and Mahuku, Darlington. Selective Nuclear Development in the International System: The Case of Iran. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 2, no. 2, (January, 2012): 203-211.
Medani, Khalid Mustafa “Strife and Secession in Sudan,” Journal of Democracy 22, No. 3, (2011): 135-149.
Medeiros, Evan S. Reluctant Restraint: The Evolution of China’s Nonproliferation Policies and Practices, 1980-2004, (Stanford University Press): 2007.
Melissen, Jan. The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations. (Palgrave Macmillan): 2007.
Midlarsky, Manus. I. Handbook of War Studies 1. (Routledge, NY): 1989.
Mitchell, John V. “A New Political Economy of Oil,” The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 42, (2002).
Modelski, George. Long Cycles in World Politics, (Seattle: University of Washington Press): 1987.
Moore, John I. Continuing Energy Crisis in America (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press): 1975.
Morgenthau, Hans and Kenneth Thompson, and David Clinton. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, (1993).
Natsios, Andrew S. and Michael Abramowitz, “Sudan’s Secession Crisis: the South Part from the North without War?” Foreign Affairs 90, No. 1, (2011).
Nerurkar, Neelesh. “US Oil Imports and Exports Specialist in Energy Policy,” Congressional Research Service, April 4, 2012.
Ng, Grace. “China Inching Towards Bigger Role in Persian Gulf,” Straits Times Indonesia, January 28, 2012.
Newmyer, Jacqueline. “Oil, Arms, and Influence: The Indirect Strategy Behind Chinese Military Modernization” Orbis, (Spring, 2009): 205-219.
Noël, Pierre. “The New US Middle East Policy and Energy Security Challenges,” Politique Etrangère 2 (2006): 1-9.
Notter, James and Louise Diamond, “Building Peace and Transforming Conflict: Multi-Track Diplomacy in Practice,” The Institute for Multi-track Diplomacy Occasional Paper, No. 7, (October 1996).
Nye, Joseph Jr. Understanding international conflict: An introduction to theory and history, (Shanghai: Shanghai People Press): 2005.
OECD, Economic Surveys: China, March, 2013.
Olimat, Muhamad S. “The Political Economy of the Sino-Middle Eastern Relations,” Journal of Chinese Political Science/Association of Chinese Political Studies 15, (2008): 307–335.
_________. China and the Middle East: From Silk Road to Arab Spring. (Routledge, London and New York): 2013.
Organski, Kenneth. World Politics, (Alfred A. Knopf, New York): 1958.
¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬Organski, Kenneth and Jacek Kugler. The War Ledger. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago): 1980.
O’Rourke, Ronald. “PLAN Force Structure: Submarines, Ships, and Aircraft,” In The Chinese Navy: Expanding Capabilities, Evolving Roles, ed. Philip C. Saunders, et al., National Defense University Press for the Center for Study of Chinese Military Affairs Institute for National Strategic Studies, Washington D.C., 2011.
¬_________. “China Naval Modernization: Implications for US Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, April 2013.
Ottaway, Marina and Mai El-Sadany, “Sudan: From Conflict to Conflict,” Carnegie Paper, May 2012.
Pham, J. Peter. “China’s ‘Surge’ in the Middle East and Its Implications for US Interests,” American Foreign Policy Interests 31, (2009): 177-193.
Poneman, Daniel. Nuclear Power in the Developing World. (London: George Allen & Unwin): 1982.
Pruitt, John. “The Influence of Sea Power in the 21st Century,” Working Paper, Security Studies Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (August 2000).
Qian, Xuewen. “China’s Energy Cooperation with Middle East Oil-producing Countries,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4, No. 3, (2010): 65-80.
Radtke, Kurt W. “China and the Greater Middle East: Globalization No Longer Equals Westernization,” Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 6, (2007).
Reardon, Robert J. Containing Iran: Strategies for Addressing the Iranian Nuclear Challenge. RAND Corporation, (2012).
Rubel, C. Robert. “Is China the real Mahanian maritime power of the 21st century?” Information Dissemination, (June 12, 2012).
Rubin, Barry. “China’s Middle East Strategy,” Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) 3, No. 1, (March 1999): 345-353.
Sovacool, Benjamin K. “Evaluating Energy Security in the Asia Pacific: Towards a More Comprehensive Approach,” Energy Policy 39, (2011).
Scobell, Andrew and Andrew J. Nathan. “China’s Overstretched Military,” The Washington Quarterly 35, 4, (2012): 158-148.
Shaffer, Brenda. “Energy Politics,” (University of Pennsylvania State): 2009.
Shambaugh, David. Coping with a Conflicted China. Washington Quarterly 34, no. 1, (2011): 7–27.
Shen, Dingly. Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions Test China’s Wisdom. The Washington Quarterly 29, 2, (2006): 55–66.
Shinn, David. “China’s Growing Role in Africa: Implications for US Policy,” Hearing before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, November 1, 2011.
Singh, Mandip. “China's Strategic Petroleum Reserves: A Reality Check,” IDSA (Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses) Issue Brief, May 21, 2012.
Soysa, Indra D., John R. O’Neal, and Yong Hee Park. “Testing Power Transition Theory Using Alternative Measures of National Capabilities,” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, No. 4, (1997): 509-528.
Sparks, Donald L. Review. “India and China’s growing economic involvement in sub-Saharan Africa,” Journal of African Studies and Development 3, No. 4, (April 2011).
Speed, Philip Andrews; Xuanli Liao and Roland Dannreuther. The Strategic Implications of China’s Energy Needs. (Routledge): 2002.
_________. “Searching for Energy Security: The Political Ramifications of China’s International Energy Policy” China Environment Series, (2002b): 13-28.
Speedie, David C., “US-Iran Relations Exiting the Cul de Sac,” Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Relations, July 2012.
Sprance, R. William. “The Russo-Japanese War: The Emergence of Japanese Imperial Power,” Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 6, No. 3, (Winter 2004): 1-24.
Tammen, Ronald, L. et all. Power Transitions: Strategies for the 21st Century (NY: Chatham House Publishers of Seven Bridges Press):2000.
Tang, James. “With the Grain or Against the Grain? Energy Security and Chinese Foreign Policy in the Hu Jintao Era,” The Brookings Institution Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies (October 2006).
Traub, James. “The Accidental Peacemaker,” Foreign Policy (May 4, 2012).
Ullman, Richard H. “Redefining Security,” International Security 8, No. 1, (Summer, 1983): 162-177.
Vivoda, Vlado. “Diversification of oil import sources and energy security: A key strategy or an elusive objective?” Energy Policy 37 (2009): 4615–4623.
Wakefield, Bryce. “Introduction,” in China in the Persian Gulf, eds. Bryce Wakefield and Susan L. Levenstein, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., 2011.
Waldron, Arthur. “The rise of China: Military and Political Implications,” Review of International Studies 31, (2005): 715-733.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World System: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World Economy, (Now York: Academic Press): 1980.
Walt, Stephen. “China’s New Strategy,” Foreign Policy Magazine, April 2010.
Wanli, Yu. “Re-thinking China’s “Sea Power” Strategy in Modern Times,” China-US Focus, February 14, 2011.
Wendt, Alexander. Social Theory of International Politics,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 1999.
_________. “Collective Identity Formation and the International State,” American Political Science Review 88, No. 2, (June 1994): 384-396.
Willrich, Mason. Energy and world politics, (New York: The Free Press): 1975.
Woodward, Peter. “Towards Two Sudans,” Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 52, No. 3, (2011): 5-10.
Wu, Bingbing. “Strategy and Politics in the Gulf as seen from China,” in China in the Persian Gulf, eds. Bryce Wakefield and Susan L. Levenstein, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., 2011.
Yao, Kuangyi. “Development of Sino-Arab Relations and the Evolution of China’s Middle East Policy in the New Era,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 1, No. 1, (2007): 3- 19.
Yang, Yao. “Chasing Resources: A New Form of Colonialism?” East Asia Forum Quarterly 4, No. 2 (April-June 2012): 4-44.
Yee, Herbert S. China’s Rise-Threat or Opportunity? (London: Routledge): 2011.
Yu, Jianhua and Yichen Dai. “Energy Politics and Security Concepts from Multidimensional Perspectives,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6, No. 4, (2012): 91-120.
Xia, Liping. “China: A Responsible Great Power,” Journal of Contemporary China 10, No. 26, (2001): 17-25.
Xu, Duo.“China’s Cruise towards Sea Power,” e-ir, April 17, 2012.
Xu, Qinhua. “China’s Energy Diplomacy and its Implications for Global Energy Security,” FES Briefing Paper 13, (August 2007).
Xu, Xiaojie. “China and the Middle East: Cross-investment in the energy sector,” Middle East Policy 7. 3 (Jun 2000): 122-136.
Xu, Yi-chong. “China's energy security,” Australian Journal of International Affairs 60, 2, (2006).
Yan, Xuetong. “The Rise of China and its Power Status.” Chinese Journal of International Politics 1, no. 1, (2006): 5-33.
Yergin, Daniel, “Energy security in the 1990s,” Foreign Affairs 67 (1), 1988, 110–132.
__________. “Ensuring Energy Security,” Foreign Affairs 85 No. 2, 2006.
Yetiv, Steve; Lu, Chunlong, “China, Global Energy, and the Middle East,” The Middle East Journal 61, 2, (Spring 2007): 199-218.
Yhome, K. Anthony. “The geopolitics of China’s new energy route,” East Asia Forum, June 19th, 2013
Zhang, Jian. “China’s Energy Security: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities,” The Brookins Institution Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, 2011.
Zahirinejad, Mahnaz and Vrushal Ghoble. “Energy Factor in China-Iran Relations,” Journal of Peace Studies 17, no, 2&3, April-September, 2010.
Zha, Daojiong. “China’s Energy Security and Its International Relations,” The China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, Volume 3, No. 3, (November 2005): 39-54.
_________. “China’s Energy Security: Domestic and International Issues,” Survival 48 No. 1 (Spring 2006): 179–190.
Zhang, Xiaodong. “China's Interests in the Middle East: Present and Future,” Middle East Policy 6, 3, (Feb 1999).
Zhao, Hongtu. “China’s Energy Interest and Security in the Middle East” in China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond, The Nixon Center and Gulf Research Center, 2011.
_________. “China’s Overseas Energy Investment: Myth and Reality,” Contemporary International Relations 19, No. 1 Jan./Feb. 2007.
Zhenqiang, Pan. Iran’s New Election and Its Implications to the Regional Security. Shanghai Institute for Strategic Studies, July 29, 2005.
Zhu, Zhiqun. US-China Relations in the 21st Century: Power Transition and Peace. Routledge, London, 2006.
__________. China’s New Diplomacy: Rationale, Strategies and Significance, Ashgate Publishing Limited: England, 2010.
Newspapers, Reports, Online Resources and Others:
ABB, “China Efficiency Report,” January 2011.
Al-Khouri, Riad.“China moves for Iraq's black stuff: Beijing set to be Baghdad’s largest oil producer and purchaser,” Executive, March 01, 2013.
Anderlini, Jamil and Gwen Robinson. “China-Myanmar pipeline to open in May,” Financial Times, January 2013.
Arango, Tim and Clifford Krauss. “China Is Reaping Biggest Benefits of Iraq Oil Boom,” The New York Times, June 2, 2013.
Associated Press. China denounces US sanctions against companies, Associated Press. February 12, 2013.
Auken, Bill Van. Military Buildup in Persian Gulf: US escalates military threat against Iran. Global Research. 4 July 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013, from http://www.globalresearch.ca/ military-buildup-in-persian-gulf-us-escalates-military-threat-against-iran/31757.
Benjamin, R. Milton. Administration Will List 63 Countries Subject to Nuclear Export Restrictions, Nuclear Files, (9 September, 1982). Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/proliferation/ iran/A%20brief%20history%20of%20US-Iranian%20nuclear%20negotiations.pdf.
Brennan, Hugo. “China's Syria Connection.” The National Interest, August 9, 2013, Retrieved August 30, 2013.
Bridge, Robert. Creating a Multi-Polar World: Beijing, Moscow Make Case against Unilateralism. Global Research, 24 March 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://www.globalresearch.ca/creating-a-multi-polar-world-beijing-moscow-make-case-against-unilateralism/18315.
Burr, William. A Brief History of US-Iranian Nuclear Negotiations. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2013, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/proliferation/iran/A%20brief%20history%20of%20US-Iranian%20nuclear%20negotiations.pdf.
“Central Asia Pipeline to Secure Gas for China,” CSC, July 02, 2008, Retrieved, August 12, 2013, http://www.chinastakes.com/2008/7/central-asia-pipeline-to-secure-gas-for-china.html
Central Intelligence Agency. Middle East-South Asia: Nuclear Handbook, May 1988.Accessed June 2, 2013, from http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/documentconversions /89801/DOC_0000375197.pdf
“A Closer Look at China’s Oil Demand Prospects,” Centre for Global Energy Studies (CGES), September, 2010.Retrieved July 29, 2013.
Chubin, Shahram. Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Washington, D.C., 2006.
Clapper, R. James. Director of National Intelligence, Worldwide Threat Assessment to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (January, 2012).
Crooks, Ed and Fifield, Anna. US oil imports to fall to 25-year low. Financial Times, January 8, 2013.
Digital National Security Archive. US Supplied Nuclear material to Iran, 29 January, 1980. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com.
Dreyfuss, Robert. In Multilateral Talks with Iran, Israel Is Increasingly Isolated. The Nation, April 8, 2013.
Duo, Xu.“China’s Cruise towards Sea Power,” e-ir, April 17, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from www.e-ir.info/2012/04/17/ chinas-cruise-towards-sea-power
Eland, Ivan. No War for Oil: US Dependency and the Middle East. Independent Institute, December 21, 2011.Retrieved May 21, 2013.
Energy Information Administration (a). World Oil Transit Chokepoints, 2012.Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.eia.gov/countries/regions-topics.cfm?fips=wotc&trk=p3.
Energy Information Administration (b). Sudan and South Sudan Country Analysis Brief, March 19, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=SU
Energy Information Administration (c). The Strait of Hormuz is the world's most important oil transit chokepoint, January 4, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=4430.
Energy Information Administration (d). Country Brief: China. Last Updated, September 2012; Revised, April 2013, Retrieved, August 5, 2013, http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=CH.
Energy Information Administration (e). “How dependent are we on foreign oil,” May 10, 2013. Retrieved, August 5, 2013, http://www.eia.gov/energy_in_brief/article/foreign_oil_dependence.cfm.
Energy Information Administration (f). “US expected to be largest producer of petroleum and natural gas hydrocarbons in 2013,” October 4, 2013. Retrieved, October 3, 2013, from http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=13251&src=email.
“The Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040,” Exon Mobil, Retrieved July 30, http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/energy_outlook.aspx.
“Fueling the Dragon: China’s Investment in the Global Oil and Gas Market,” Ernst and Young Global Oil and Gas Center, 2011.
Hahn II, George. “Mahan's influence on naval strategy has yet to ebb,” The Baltimore Sun, August 23, 1995.
“Israel to push China on Iran issue,” Global Times, February 22, 2010.
“International Energy Agency (a). “World Energy Outlook,” 2011.
International Energy Agency (b). North America leads shift in global energy balance, IEA says in latest World Energy Outlook, 12 November, 2012.
International Energy Agency (c).“ World Energy Outlook 2012” (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2012).
International energy Agency (d). Country Analysis Briefs: Iran, February 2012.
International energy Agency (e).Country Analysis Briefs: China, September 2012 (Revised April 2013).
International Energy Agency. Oil Market Report, 12 September 2013.
Jones, M. Gordon. Discussion of Pakistan's Nuclear Program. Confidential Letter, Digital National Security Archive, 1 April, 1975.Retrieved June 2, 2013, from www.nsarchive.chadwyck.com.
Kan, A. Shirley. China and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues. Congressional Research Service, March 30, 2012.
Katzman, Kenneth. Iran: US Concerns and Policy Responses, Congressional Research Service, September, 2012: 6.
Kerr, Paul K. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status. US Congressional Research Service, October, 2012.
Krauss, Clifford. Oil Price Would Skyrocket if Iran Closed the Strait of Hormuz. The New York Times, January 4, 2012.
Laghmari, Jihen. “China Looks to Boost Sino-Arab Trade to $300 Billion by 2014,” Bloomberg, May 31, 2012.
Leverett, Flyntt and Hillary Mann Leverett. The Real Reason America Can't Make a Nuclear Deal with Iran. Huffington Post, April 2013.
Mackenzie, Peter. Closer Look at China-Iran Relations: Roundtable Report. CNA China Studies, September, 2012.
Mazzetti, Mark. US Says Iran Ended Atomic Arms Work. The New York Times, December 3, 2007.
Mine, Yoshiki. “US-China Relations and Sudan.” The Canon Institute for Global Studies, 2011. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
Nuclear Threat Initiative. Iran: Nuclear Chronology, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://www.nti.org/country-profiles/iran/.
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), World Oil Outlook 2010, Vienna, Austria: OPEC Secretariat, 2010.
Postel, Danny. Iran, the Left and the Non-Aligned Movement: A Guide for the Perplexed. Huffington Post, September, 2012.
Raghavan, Sundarsan and Andrew Higgins, “China in a tug of war between two Sudans,” Washington Post, March 23, 2012
Ramazani, K. Rouhollah. The Dilemma of US-Iran Relations. UVA Magazine, 2012 Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://uvamagazine.org/firstperson/article/thedilemmaofUSiranrelations.
Rapoza, Kenneth. “China Wants More Oil,” Forbes, February 2013.
“China and India – Growth Drivers for Global Oil Demand,” SAFAN, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2013, http://www.petromin.safan.com/mag/psepoct11/r08.pdf.
Sanger, David E. “Obama Order Sped up Wave of Cyber-attacks Against Iran,” New York Times, June 1, 2012.
Shinn, David H. “China’s Deft Sudan Diplomacy,” The Diplomat, September 19, 2012.
Stea, Carla. Third Russian-Chinese Veto Blocks the Road to World War III. Global Research, August 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2013, from http://www.globalresearch.ca/third-russian-chinese-veto-blocks-the-road-to-world-war-iii/32165.
Solomon, Jay. China, Russia Resist Sanctions Against Iran. The Wall Street Journal, November 17, 2011.
US Arms Sales to Iran. MERIP Reports, 51, (October 1976): 15-18.
US to Produce More Oil Than It Imports by October 2013, Center for Global Energy Studies (CGES), August 2013.
Wines, Michael. “China Leader Warns Iran Not to Make Nuclear Arms.” The New York Times, January 20, 2012. Mariar Wuoi, “China’s role in North-South Sudan relations,” Sudan Tribune, 8 January 2012.
Ying, Lin. China defends Iran oil trade despite US push. Global Times, January 12, 2012.
Zhao, Shelly. “The Geopolitics of China-African Oil,” April 13, 2011.
|Appears in Collections:||[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS) ] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.