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|Other Titles:||16- to 20-Month-Old Understanding of Others' Intentional Cues|
intentional understanding;vocal cues;emotional cues;toddlers
|Issue Date:||2014-07-22 11:44:52 (UTC+8)|
Recent literature has found that young children before the age of 2 can use behavioral cues to detect others' intentions. The present study used vocal and facial expression cues to investigate intentional ability in 16- to 20-monthold children. A pilot study looked at the Mandarin vocals that are synonymous with "there" and "woops" in English. In a semi-structured parent-and-child interaction context, 18- and 24-month-old children played with their parents. The parents' vocals in intentional and accidental conditions were recorded. Results showed that the intentional vocal "Ah!" and accidental vocal "Wa!" were most frequently used. In Study 1, we replicated the referential intent task (Chiang & Chang, 2008), corrected the vocal cues, and reduced the task difficulty. The examiner provided vocal and facial expression cues to indicate which container contained the toy. Results showed that 20-month-old children could differentiate between the demonstrated intentional and accidental cues. The 16-month-old children did not pass the task. The preference to choose the right or left side was not significant in either age group. Study 2 removed the lid of containers to reduce task difficulty, coding children's first response and last response. Similarly, 20-month-old children passed the referential intent task. Performance on the last response was better than performance on the first response, and these children needed longer time to process information. However, the children in Study 2 did not perform better than those in Study 1. This result explained that the lid of the container did not decrease the task demand. In conclusion, 20-month-old children can understand others' intentional cues of vocal and facial expression. However, further studies are needed to explore the components of task loading and compare the data with that in Western culture.
|Appears in Collections:||[心理學系] 期刊論文|
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