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Title: Infants' and Preschoolers' Imitation of Object Manipulation: The Influences of Movement Path, Perceptual Saliency, and Task Constraints
Other Titles: 動作路徑、知覺顯著性、與作業限制條件對嬰幼兒模仿物體操作的影響
Authors: 黃啟泰;江欣茹
Contributors: 心理系
Keywords: 模仿;目標導引的模仿;瞭解意圖;工具使用;動作表徵
Imitation;Goal-directed imitation;Understanding of intentions;Tool use;Action representation
Date: 2006.03
Issue Date: 2014-07-22 14:09:17 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 目標導引的模仿理論認為:動作包含不同的要素,要素在模仿過程中以階層關係重組為主要目標和次要目標。當資源有限時,和動作終點相較之下,手臂路徑易於在模仿中被犧牲。本研究設計兩個實驗,探討目標導引理論是否延伸於解釋嬰兒和學齡前兒童在物體操作作業的模仿表現。在實驗一,示範者以不同的手依次操作不同的物體,有些受試者觀察示範者使用與物體同側的手,有些觀察示範者使用與物體異側的手,其中二分之一的受試者觀察操作動作伴隨顯著的知覺效果,另二分之一只觀察操作動作。在實驗二,示範者改以同一手依次操作不同的物體,另一手握持杯子或閒置不用停放於胸前。結果發現:在兩個實驗中,受試者最傾向使用不同的手操作與手同側的物體,動作結果的顯著性或作業的限制條件並無法降低同側路徑的反應傾向。相較於Bekkering等(2000)的研究發現,異側路徑的反應傾向在本研究相當罕見。目標導引的過程是否干擾異側路徑和行為策略的重演傾向,本研究尚未達成結論,因模仿物體操作可能比模仿身體動作引起更多固有的限制條件。
The goal-directed imitation theory suggests that imitation involves representing an observed action as a set of components that are hierarchically specified from major to less important goals. Given limited resources, children tend to encode end points as dominant over movement paths. Under this logic, two experiments were conducted here to examine imitative performance of infants and preschoolers using object manipulation tasks. In Experiment 1, the experimenter performed a sequence of two actions on objects unimanually with ipsilateral or contralateral hand paths. In each condition, some actions were followed by their salient effects; some were not. In Experiment 2, the adult manipulated two objects with the same hand while the other hand grasped a cup or was free staying close to chest. In two experiments, children from both age groups were likely to reenact the observed actions with ipsilateral hands. This ipsilateral preference was not affected by either perceptual saliency or task constraints. In contrast to the Bekkering, Wohlschl ger, and Gattis (2000) study, contralateral responses were relatively rare in the present study. While it may not be possible here to identify how much the goal-directed process reduces the tendency to copy the adult s behavioral strategy and contralateral actions, it is important to consider the constraints inherent in the current task.
Relation: 中華心理學刊,48(1),13-33
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 期刊論文

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