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|Other Titles:||The Evolution of the CCP's Policy on Literature and Art|
policy on literature and art;Mao Zedong;Deng Xiaoping;Jiang Zemin;Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art;the people;socialism
|Issue Date:||2014-08-05 10:42:18 (UTC+8)|
Since its formation nearly sixty years age, the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP's) official literary and art policy has had a deep and far-reaching influence on the ideology, speech, behavior, creation, and even life of mainland Chinese writers and artists. The two main axes of this policy are Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping's policies on literature and art.The chief basis of the CCP's literary and art policy is Mao Zedong's Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art in 1942. The original objective of the forum was to purge such out –spoken writers as Wang Shiwei and silence similar protests. Therefore, since the CCP formed an official literature and art policy, there have often been rectification campaigns in mainland China.Mao Zedong reiterated Lenin's remarks that literature and art were "cogs and screws" destined to fulfill their allotted roles in the "proletarian machine," and should not be allowed to developed freely. He stated that literature and art must serve politics and create typical contradictions and struggles. He thought that art for art's sake, art transcending classes, art parallel to politics, and art independent from politics "did not exist in reality." To declare war against this nonexistent enemy, he launched many rectification campaigns. Before 1949, there were movements against Wang Shiwei and Xiao Jun in the Communist-ruled areas, and after 1949, numerous mainland Chinese writers were insulted and attacked. Though Mao was the initiator of all these sufferings, the adoption of such an literary and art policy by the CCP government also played an important role. That was the reason why mainland Chinese writers continued to live under the shadow of persecution after Mao's death.After his ascension to power, Deng Xiaoping emphasized the necessity of upholding and further developing Mao's thinking on literature and art. Upholding Mao's thinking on literature and art meant making Mao's idea that literature and art must first serve workers, peasants, and soldiers the fundamental principle of the CCP's literary and art policy; further developing Mao's thinking on literature and art implies making literature and art serve "the people" and "socialism." The CCP has its own special definitions of such terms as "the people" and "socialism." For instance, according to the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, "the people" means the workers, peasants, petty bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie, and some patriotic democratic elements who have awaken from the reactionary class. This was an interpretation motivated by strong united front work concerns, but the term "the people" did not mean all the people. For the Chinese Communists, socialism is a necessary transitional stage to communism.Politics is in itself an art and should emphasize taking a mean course. For Communist leaders, however, art is a part of politics. They therefore formulated a policy on literature and art. Mainland Chinese writers have long called for the elimination of such a policy, but Communist Chinese leaders and literary and art cadres have always used the policy to maintain control over the literary and art circles. The CCP's literary and art policy after Deng Xiaoping's death proves that it will be difficult for the "blooming of a hundred flowers" to really appear in mainland China, despite its being a popular slogan for decades.
|Relation:||中國大陸研究, 43(5), 71-95|
|Appears in Collections:||[中國大陸研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文|
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