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Title: 靈與心的救贖:從靈思心理學解讀al-Ghazzali的蘇非之道
The Salvation of Soul and Heart: A Contemplative Psychological Interpretation on al-Ghazzali’s Sufi Path
Authors: 楊美芬
Contributors: 蔡怡佳

Keywords: al-Ghazzali
Han F. de Wit
salvation of soul and heart
spiritual crisis
exoteric & esoteric
Han F. de Wit
contemplative psychology
heart with doubt
thought and experience
change and renunciation
Date: 2013
Issue Date: 2014-08-06 11:45:11 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文以11、12世紀伊斯蘭蘇非大師Ghazzali的靈與心之救贖作為宗教心理學理論探討的典範,主要著眼於他個人在宗教心理的意義中,以虔誠和謙卑體現信仰實踐的重大轉變,除了其本身擁有豐富的知識和深刻的思想,更重要的是,他履行蘇非之道,徹底改變信仰態度,真正捨離世俗,最終獲得靈與心的救贖。在分析和詮釋的理論依據上,本文採用荷蘭宗教心理學家Han Wit結合自己的心理學素養與靈修經驗,在20世紀晚期發展出的一套理論,稱為「靈思心理學」(Contemplative Psychology)。在這套理論中,de Wit呈現宗教的冥思傳統(contemplative tradition)與個人的心理洞見、信念之間的連結,經驗和思想可以相互為用。在他所提出的觀點之中,本文透過如下幾個主張,包括皈依、關鍵時刻、斷裂、危機、懷疑、改變、與捨離,說明Ghazzali如何成就伊斯蘭密契傳統的最高典範,同時也突顯靈思心理學試圖闡釋人類靈與心互相超越,同獲救贖的理想。
The thesis regarded Ghazzali, the outstanding thinker and great Sufi of Islamic world in the 11th and 12th centuries, as a perfect example, who embodied an inward transformation of religious action with piety and humility. Other than his profound knowledge and thoughts, Ghazzali is also an authority on theology and law of Islam, and furthermore he performed a Muslim’s devotion by proceeding on the path of Sufi. He gave up all his possessions, followed the instructions of Sufism to survive a serious crisis of spirit, and obtained the ultimate salvation of his soul and heart in the end.
The theory used in this thesis to analyze and interpret Ghazzali’s spiritual experience is the “contemplative psychology” of Han Wit, who is a religious psychologist of the Netherlands. De Wit spent more than ten years combining his psychological training and spiritual experience to develop the theory in late twentieth century. In this theory he presented the connection between contemplative traditions of many religions and the insights & beliefs within individual mind. Among those concepts stated by de Wit in his theory, the thesis used mainly several of them, such as conversion, moments, break, crisis, doubt, change, and renunciation, etc. Accordingly, Ghazzali could be the most perfect example of the contemplative psychology, when we refer to salvation of both human Soul and Heart.
Reference:  有關伊斯蘭思想及蘇非主義
 Abu Bakr al-Kalabadhi (1979), The Doctrine of the Sufis, Translated by A.J.Arberry. London: Cambridge University Press.
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 Avery, Kenneth S. (2004), A Psychology of Early Sufi Sama-Listening and altered states, London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
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 Fakhry, Majid (1997), A Short Introduction to Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Mysticism, Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
 Hayakal al-Nur (1998), Suhrawardi-The Shape of Light, Louisville: Fons Vitae.
 Karamustafa, Ahmet T. (2007), Sufism-The Formative Period, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
 Knysh, Alexander (2000),Islamic Mysticism-A Short History, Leiden‧Boston‧Koln: Brill.
 Landau, Rom (2008), The Philosophy of IbnArabi, London: George Allen &Unwin Ltd.

 Lapidus, Ira M. (1985), A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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 Nasir Al-Din Tusi (1999), Contemplation and Action-The Spiritual Autobiography of a Muslim Scholar , Edited and translated by S.J.Badakhchani. London and New York: I.B.Tauris.
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 有關Imam Abu Hamid Ghazzali的著作
 Al-Ghazzali (1977), The Religious Psychology of Al-Ghazzali: A Translation of his Book of the Ihya on the Explanation of the Wonders of the Heart with Introduction and Notes, Translated, introduced, and annotated by Walter James Skellie. University Microfilms International.
 Al-Ghazzali (1980),The Niche for Lights in the Four Sufi Classics,Translated by W.H.T.Gairdner. London: The Octagon Press.
 Al-Ghazzali (1991), The Alchemy of Happiness,Translated by Claud Field. Revised and annotated by Elton L. Daniel. New York: M.E.Sharpe Inc.
 Al-Ghazzali (1995), The Book of Disciplining the Soul, Refining the Character & Curing the Sicknesses of the Heart, Book XXII of The Revival of the Religious Sciences , Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society.
 Al-Ghazzali (2001), Deliverance from Error and Mystical Union with the Almighty, Translated and introduced by Muhammad Abulaylah, with an editor's introduction by George F. Mclean. WashingtonD.C.: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.
 Al-Ghazzali, Rescuer from Error: The Spiritual Autobiography of a Great Teacher, Translated by Charles F. Horne.Kessinger Publishing.
 Al-Ghazzali (2001), The Mysteries of the Human Soul, Translated by Abdul Qayyum. Lahore-Pakistan: SH.Muhammad Ashraf.
 Al-Ghazzali (2002), On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam, Translated and introduced by Sherman A. Jackson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 Algar, Hamid (2001),Imam Abu Hamid Ghazzli-An Exponent of Islam in its Totality, New York: Oneonta.
 Gianotti, Timothy J. (2001), Al-Ghazzali's Unspeakable Doctrine of the Soul-Unveiling the Esoteric Psychology and Eschatology of the Ihya,Leiden,Boston,Koln: Brill.
 Ormsby, Eric L. (1984), Theodicy in Islamic Thought-The Dispute over Al-Ghazzali's "Best of All Possible Worlds" ,Princeton: Princeton University Press.
 Treiger, Alexander (2012), Inspired Knowledge in Islamic Thought-Al-Ghazzali's theory of mystical cognition and its Avicennianfoundation, London and New York: Routledge.
 Watt, W. Montgomery (1963), Muslim Intellectual-A Study of Al-Ghazzali, Edinburgh: The Edinburgh University Press.
 林長寬著 (2006),〈阿逋哈彌德 噶札里之蘇非觀初探〉,台北:《輔仁宗教研究》第13期, 65-83頁。

 有關宗教心理學

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 James, William (2002), The Varieties of Religious Experience-A Study in Human Nature, New York: The Modern Library.
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 Sharf, Robert H. Experience in Critical Terms for Religious Studies. Edited by Mark C. Taylor. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. pp.94-116
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 Taves, Ann (2009), Religious Experience Reconsidered: A Building-block Approach to the Study of Religion and Other Special Things, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
 Tobin Hart, Peter L. Nelson, and KaisaPuhakka ed. (2000), Transpersonal Knowing-Exploring the Horizon of Consciousness, Albany: State University of New York Press.
 De Wit, Han F. (1991), Contemplative Psychology, Translated by Marie Louise Baird. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.
 De Wit, Han F. (1999), The Spiritual Path-An Introduction to the Psychology of the Spiritual Traditions,Translated by Henry Jansen & Lucia Hofland-Jansen. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.
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 肯恩‧威爾伯著,廖世德譯 (2013),《萬法簡史》。台北:心靈工坊文化事業公司。
 約翰‧威爾伍德(John Welwood)著,鄧伯宸譯 (2009),《覺醒風─東方與西方的心靈交會》。台北:心靈工坊文化事業公司。

 威廉‧詹姆斯(William James)著,蔡怡佳、劉宏信譯 (2001),《宗教經驗之種種─人性的探究》。台北:立緒文化事業公司。
 斯塔伯克(E.D.Starbuck)著,楊宜音譯 (1997),《宗教心理學》。台北:桂冠圖書公司。
 奧古斯丁(S.AureliAugustini)著,周士良譯 (1998),《懺悔錄》。台北:台灣商務印書館。
 榮格(C.G.Jung)著,劉國彬、楊德友譯 (1997),《榮格自傳─回憶、夢、省思》。台北:張老師文化事業公司
 Stein, Murray著, 蔡昌雄譯文校訂, 朱侃如譯, (1999)《榮格心靈地圖》。台北:立緒文化事業公司。
 蔡怡佳著,(2010),〈宗教經驗與其可理解性之追求〉,《臺灣宗教研究》第9卷第2期,52-74頁。
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