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The Political Competition and Cooperation of Taiwanese and the Resident Japanese in Early 1920s
The perspective can be usually seen as Taiwanese fight against the Taiwan Governor General’s Office （臺灣總督府Taiwan Soudokufu） when coming to the Taiwan political history study during the Japanese Ruled Period. This study intends to deconstruct the dichotomic properties of Taiwanese and Taiwan Governor General’s Office, and adds the rule of resident Japanese in Taiwan. The coopetition of the three parties, Taiwanese, Taiwan Governor General’s Office, and resident Japanese in Taiwan, will be discussed through four political events, the Movement of against Abolishing Prefectures during the early 1920s, the Election Problem of Council Members under the changing local government system, the Petition of the Establishment of Taiwan Council, and the Taiwan Civil Inheritance Issue in the Council of the Taiwan Governor General’s Office.
The “Taiwan Size” in this study means the concept of Taiwan as a whole, and the “local”, on the contrary, means any subtle, organic unit in Taiwan. The “local” is the essential that constructs the “Taiwan size.” Since the Qing ruling, the hierarchical layers took shape in Taiwan society. The layers continued to exist in the Japanese Ruled Period. During the 1920s, Taiwanese Intellectuals who received modern education started their activities, and the society of resident Japanese in Taiwan entered the stable phase. All of them are the dominating for launching political activities from every hierarchical layer in Taiwan society.
The bias treatment of Taiwanese and of Japanese in Taiwan always existed in terms of several perspectives. Though the right of resident Japanese in Taiwan was restricted by Taiwan Governor General’s Office’s law（六三體制）, political status of Taiwanese was still inferior to local Japanese in Taiwan. Through layers of ruling bias, interweaving power structure and coopetition, the interaction of Taiwanese-Japanese of different social hierarchy was formed and interpreted. By the four political events mentioned previously, this study concludes that different political purposes are pursued by Taiwanese Governor General’s Office, Taiwanese, and the resident Japanese in Taiwan. The main purpose of the Taiwanese Governor General’s Office emphasizes a stable ruling status and a government-Constitutional domination. On the one hand, the Taiwanese Governor General’s Office tried to release itself from the control of the mother country Japan, and on the other hand, the Office had to answer pressure from people of the colonial Taiwan. Hence, based on a stable ruling political status, the Taiwanese Governor General’s Office appropriately release constrained political right to the colonial Taiwanese. On the contrary, the main purpose of Taiwanese people emphasize on elevating their political status and the equal treatment among Taiwanese and Japanese. For this purpose, Taiwanese and resident Japanese in Taiwan competed and cooperated with each other. The resident Japanese in Taiwan pursued the idea of “keeping the interest and their superiority.” Even if their interest was threatened and they had to cooperate with Taiwanese, the resident Japanese in Taiwan still hoped to keep the superior status to the Taiwanese. No matter the Taiwanese Governor General’s Office, Taiwanese, or the resident Japanese in Taiwan, the key for competition or cooperation in a provincial or national political activities was determined by the “interest.” If the interest of one party will be damaged, they will fight against each other. If the interest of two parties will be damaged, they will cooperate with each other and fight for their sharing interest.
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