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Title: 1990年台灣人口普查中教育資料之分析與詮釋
Other Titles: The Analysis and Interpretation of the Educational Data of 1990 Census in Taiwan.
Authors: 馬信行
Contributors: 教育學系
Keywords: 結構性流動;失業指數;犯罪機會理論;教育社會學
Structural mobility;Unemployment index;Opportunity theory of crime;Educational sociology
Date: 1995
Issue Date: 2014-08-27 17:36:13 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 我國十年一次的人口普查資料是很難得的調查數據,為了解這些數據在教育社會學中能從中得到何種學理的驗證,特作此研究。本研究以中華民國七十九年台灣地區戶口及住宅普查報告的資料為分析素材,加以原始資料檔及其他文獻,對有關的教育社會學理論加以檢驗,重要發現有:(a)支持教育社會學的犯罪理論:即愈繁榮的縣市,犯罪率愈高;因為愈繁榮的社會,犯罪目標物愈多,支持了「犯罪是自由與繁榮的副產物」的假說。(b)教育可減少犯罪。因為比較犯罪嫌疑人的教育程度分布與十五歲以上人口的教育分布發現:教育程度愈高,犯罪百分率就愈相對的減少,可推論出教育可減少犯罪動機。(c)台灣的社會也有結構性的流動產生。檢定四次人口普查的資料發現:教育與職業的垂直分工度都有逐次上升的趨勢。(d)教育對職業及薪資皆有正面的效果。教育程度愈高,職業地位高的機率也愈高,這可解釋為何青年學子汲汲升學的現象。但在知識密集的社會,專業知識愈來愈艱深,無法靠自修學習,升學應被解釋為爭取受專業教育的機會。(e)如果將失業者依所習科系類別作成百分率,再與十五歲以上人口各科系類別百分率相比較,可看出那些科系類別較易失業,本研究擬出一個公式,可計算失業指數,以圖形來表示正負失業指數的高度,可一目瞭然的知道那些科系類別的失業率風險較大。此失業指數將可供職業輔導及教育輔導並用,提供高中畢業生選擇科系時的參考,也可提供政府在審查新設科系類別時的參考。(f)在高職及高等教育的所習類別中發現,男女性別有性向上的差異,男生選擇硬科學(數理工),女生選擇軟科學(人文社會等)的趨勢較高。
This study is to analyse and interpret the educational data of the 1990 census of population and housing in Taiwan. Data were used to test various theories in the field of educational sociology. Major findings are: (a) The opportunity theory of crime is supported: the more prosperous a society is, the higher the crime rate will be this is due to the fact that in a prosperous society, more objectives of crime are available. Therefore the hypothesis: "crime is a byproduct of freedom and prosperity" can be supported. (b) Delinquency behavior can be reduced through education. Because by comparing the percentage of different educational attainment between the offenders and the civilian population aged 15 years and over it is found that, those offender, whose educational level higher than junior high school is, have lower percentage relative to the civilian population. It is possible that education will reduced the offense motivation. (c) Taiwanese society is undergoing structural mobility. Checking the four census carried out in the past time in Taiwan, a upward trend of the degree of vertical labor division in education as well as in occupation has been found. (d) Education has a positive effect on occupation: the his her a person's educational attainment is, the higher his opportunity of reaching high occupation will be, and this rule is also valid for his salary. This phenomenon can interpret why so many young ones pursuing advanced studies. But in a knowledge-intensive society, professional knowledges become harder to be learned without the instructions in the educational institutions. The pursuit of advanced studies should be regarded as to acquire a chance to learn professional knowledges. (e) If the percentage of different academic field of unemployed is compared with that of labor force, it is easy to finger out which academic field has higher risk of unemployment. In this study, a formula is suggested to calculate the unemployment index. This index would be a valuable information for those, who want to choose academic field for their advanced study. It would also be helpful for the government to screen the applications for the establishments of new departments of higher educations. (f) An aptitude differentiation between both sexes by the choice of academic field has been found in the vocational high school and in higher education. Male students tend to choose hard science and female students are more likely to choose soft science as the subject of their studies.
Relation: 行政院國家科學委員會
Data Type: report
Appears in Collections:[教育學系] 國科會研究計畫

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