Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 霾害之後 ——以北京PM2.5監測資料公開探討政策轉向之過程
After Haze: the Policy Change Process of PM2.5 Information Disclosure
Authors: 湯思斯
Tang, Si Si
Contributors: 李河清
Lee, Ho Ching
Tang, Si Si
Keywords: 焦點事件
Focusing Event
Policy Change
Environmental Information Disclosure
Date: 2013
Issue Date: 2014-09-01 13:54:12 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 2011年末,一場持續數天的霧霾天氣席捲北京,環保部門卻並未提供相關污染物PM2.5的監測數據。相關法律法規的落後,以及環保部門的不作為,激起民眾的不滿。隨著美國駐華大使館、環保NGO、微博名人和廣大民眾的持續參與與推動,政府相關資訊政策也逐漸變化,最終將PM2.5納入空氣質量標準并公佈監測數據。本文以此次霧霾污染事件作為「焦點事件」切入點,首先藉由事件回顧討論“誰來監測”的問題,探討了環境信息公開的理論與實踐;然後分析政策變化的過程,歸納「政策變化模型」,討論政策變化形成的原因,分析各行為者在政策變化中的角色和作用;最後,由此事件得出這一政策轉變的影響以及啟示,歸納目前環境資訊公開領域制度層面所存在的缺失,并就此事件的經驗對於政府和環境NGO給出建議。
In the end of 2011, the city of Beijing was hit by a long-lasting haze. However, the city’s Environmental Protection Bureau was unable to provide the public with the data of a critical pollutant – PM2.5. The political inaction of the government has caused great discontent among the public. With the continuous efforts from the US Embassy in China, environmental NGOs, Sina Weibo celebrity users and the public, the official information disclosure policy has seen a big change – the government has adopted a higher standard and taken steps to publish the data of PM2.5. This article takes the haze incident as a “focusing event”. It firstly reviews the case and discusses the theories and practices of the environmental information disclosure. It then analyzes the process of this policy change and forms a policy change model to determine the contributing factors and the roles of different actors. The concluding part summarizes the omission of the current information disclosure system, and makes recommendations to the government and the NGOs.
Reference: 一、 中文部份
(一) 專書
潘小川,李國星,高婷,《危險的呼吸: PM2.5的健康危害和經濟損失評估研究》,北京:中國環境科學出版社,2012年。
汪勁,《環境法學》, 北京:北京大學出版社,2011年。
(二) 期刊論文
任海燕,<認識 PM2. 5>,《中國科技術語》卷14期2,2012年,頁54-56。
陶俊,張仁健,段菁春,荊俊山,朱李華,陳忠明,趙岳,曹軍驥,<北京城區PM2.5中致癌重金屬季節變化特徵及其來源分析>,《環境科學》卷 35期2,2014年,頁411-417。
(三) 博士畢業論文
(四) 官方文件

二、 英文部份
(一) 專書
Birkland, Thomas A. After disaster: Agenda setting, public policy, and focusing events. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press, 1997.
Birkland, Thomas A. Lessons of disaster: Policy change after catastrophic events. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press, 2006.
Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics. Vol. 35. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.
Kingdon, John W., and James A. Thurber. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Vol. 45. Boston: Little, Brown, 1984.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Energy technology transitions for industry: strategies for the next industrial revolution. OECD Publishing, 2009.
SEPA China & EPA US, US-China Joint Economic Study. Summary for Policymakers, Economic Analyses of Energy Saving and Pollution Abatement Policies for the Electric Power Sectors of China and the United States, 2007.
World Health Organization. &quot;Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution-REVIHAAP. First Results.&quot; Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2013.
(二) 期刊論文
Barnes, Michael D., Carl L. Hanson, Len MB Novilla, Aaron T. Meacham, Emily McIntyre, and Brittany C. Erickson. &quot;Analysis of media agenda setting during and after Hurricane Katrina: Implications for emergency preparedness, disaster response, and disaster policy.&quot; American Journal of Public Health 98, no. 4 (2008): 604.
Bell, Michelle L., Francesca Dominici, Keita Ebisu, Scott L. Zeger, and Jonathan M. Samet. &quot;Spatial and temporal variation in PM2. 5 chemical composition in the United States for health effects studies.&quot; Environmental health perspectives (2007): 989-995.
Birkland, Thomas A. &quot;Focusing events, mobilization, and agenda setting.&quot; Journal of public policy 18, no. 01 (1998): 53-74.
Boin, Arjen, Paul 't Hart, and Allan McConnell. &quot;Crisis exploitation: political and policy impacts of framing contests.&quot; Journal of European Public Policy 16, no. 1 (2009): 81-106.
Boldo, Elena, Sylvia Medina, Alain Le Tertre, Fintan Hurley, Hans-Guido Mücke, Ferrán Ballester, and Inmaculada Aguilera. &quot;Apheis: Health impact assessment of long-term exposure to PM2. 5 in 23 European cities.&quot; European journal of epidemiology 21, no. 6 (2006): 449-458.
Brauer, Michael, Markus Amann, Rick T. Burnett, Aaron Cohen, Frank Dentener, Majid Ezzati, Sarah B. Henderson et al. &quot;Exposure assessment for estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to outdoor air pollution.&quot; Environmental science & technology 46, no. 2 (2012): 652-660.
Brunekreef, Bert, and Stephen T. Holgate. &quot;Air pollution and health.&quot; The lancet 360, no. 9341 (2002): 1233-1242.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. &quot;International Norms and Domestic Politics: Bridging the Rationalist—Constructivist Divide.&quot; European journal of international relations 3, no. 4 (1997): 473-495.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. &quot;Norms, institutions, and national identity in contemporary Europe.&quot; International Studies Quarterly 43, no. 1 (1999): 84-114.
Chen, Renjie, Chen Chu, Jianguo Tan, Junshan Cao, Weimin Song, Xiaohui Xu, Cheng Jiang et al. &quot;Ambient air pollution and hospital admission in Shanghai, China.&quot; Journal of hazardous materials 181, no. 1 (2010): 234-240.
Cohen, Aaron J., H. Ross Anderson, Bart Ostro, Kiran Dev Pandey, Michal Krzyzanowski, Nino Künzli, Kersten Gutschmidt et al. &quot;The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution.&quot; Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 68, no. 13-14 (2005): 1301-1307.
Dan, Mo, Guoshun Zhuang, Xinxin Li, Hairong Tao, and Yahui Zhuang. &quot;The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2. 5 in Beijing.&quot; Atmospheric Environment 38, no. 21 (2004): 3443-3452.
Fann, Neal, Amy D. Lamson, Susan C. Anenberg, Karen Wesson, David Risley, and Bryan J. Hubbell. &quot;Estimating the national public health burden associated with exposure to ambient PM2. 5 and ozone.&quot; Risk Analysis 32, no. 1 (2012): 81-95.
Godschalk, David R., Samuel Brody, and Raymond Burby. &quot;Public participation in natural hazard mitigation policy formation: Challenges for comprehensive planning.&quot; Journal of environmental planning and management 46, no. 5 (2003): 733-754.
Goertz, Gary, and Paul F. Diehl. &quot;Toward a Theory of International Norms Some Conceptual and Measurement Issues.&quot; Journal of Conflict Resolution 36, no. 4 (1992): 634-664.
Guo, Yuming, Yuping Jia, Xiaochuan Pan, Liqun Liu, and H. Wichmann. &quot;The association between fine particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China.&quot; Science of the total environment 407, no. 17 (2009): 4826-4830.
Hammitt, James K., and Ying Zhou. &quot;The economic value of air-pollution-related health risks in China: a contingent valuation study.&quot; Environmental and Resource Economics 33, no. 3 (2006): 399-423.
Huang, Jing, Furong Deng, Shaowei Wu, and Xinbiao Guo. &quot;Comparisons of personal exposure to PM< sub> 2.5</sub> and CO by different commuting modes in Beijing, China.&quot; Science of the Total Environment 425 (2012): 52-59.
Huang, Xiao-Feng, Jian Zhen Yu, Ling-Yan He, and Min Hu. &quot;Size distribution characteristics of elemental carbon emitted from Chinese vehicles: results of a tunnel study and atmospheric implications.&quot; Environmental science & technology 40, no. 17 (2006): 5355-5360.
Jia, Yuling, Dave Stone, Wentao Wang, Jill Schrlau, Shu Tao, and Staci L. Massey Simonich. &quot;Estimated reduction in cancer risk due to PAH exposures if source control measures during the 2008 Beijing Olympics were sustained.&quot;Environmental health perspectives 119, no. 6 (2011): 815.
Johnston, Alastair Iain. &quot;Conclusions and extensions: toward mid-range theorizing and beyond Europe.&quot; International Organization 59, no. 04 (2005): 1013-1044.
Kan, Haidong, and Bingheng Chen. &quot;Particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai, China: health-based economic assessment.&quot; Science of the Total Environment 322, no. 1 (2004): 71-79.
Kan, Haidong, Stephanie J. London, Guohai Chen, Yunhui Zhang, Guixiang Song, Naiqing Zhao, Lili Jiang, and Bingheng Chen. &quot;Differentiating the effects of fine and coarse particles on daily mortality in Shanghai, China.&quot; Environment international 33, no. 3 (2007): 376-384.
Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. &quot;Transnational advocacy networks in international and regional politics.&quot; International Social Science Journal 51, no. 159 (1999): 89-101.
KuÈnzli, Nino, Reinhard Kaiser, Sylvia Medina, M. Studnicka, Olivier Chanel, Paul Filliger, Max Herry et al. &quot;Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment.&quot; The Lancet 356, no. 9232 (2000): 795-801.
Liu, Fei, Z. Klimont, Qiang Zhang, J. Cofala, Lijian Zhao, Hong Huo, B. Nguyen et al. &quot;Integrating mitigation of air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Chinese cities: development of GAINS-City model for Beijing.&quot; Journal of Cleaner Production 58 (2013): 25-33.
Lü, Senlin, Rui Zhang, Zhenkun Yao, Fei Yi, Jingjing Ren, Minghong Wu, Man Feng, and Qingyue Wang. &quot;Size distribution of chemical elements and their source apportionment in ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles in Shanghai urban summer atmosphere.&quot; Journal of Environmental Sciences 24, no. 5 (2012): 882-890.
Olson, Richard Stuart. &quot;Toward a politics of disaster: Losses, values, agendas, and blame.&quot; Crisis Management 18, no. 2 (2000): 154.
Pope III, C. Arden, and Douglas W. Dockery. &quot;Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect.&quot; Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 56, no. 6 (2006): 709-742.
Prater, Carla S., and Michael K. Lindell. &quot;Politics of hazard mitigation.&quot; Natural Hazards Review 1, no. 2 (2000): 73-82.
Qian, Zhengmin, Junfeng Zhang, Fusheng Wei, William E. Wilson, and Robert S. Chapman. &quot;Long-term ambient air pollution levels in four Chinese cities: inter-city and intra-city concentration gradients for epidemiological studies.&quot; Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 11, no. 5 (2000): 341-351.
Zhang, Qiang, Kebin He, and Hong Huo. &quot;Policy: cleaning China's air.&quot; Nature 484, no. 7393 (2012): 161-162.
Wan, Yue., Hongwei Yang, and Toshihiko Masui. &quot;Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.&quot; Reviews on environmental health 20, no. 2 (2004): 119-140.
Wang, Shaoguang. &quot;Changing models of China's policy agenda setting.&quot; Modern China 34, no. 1 (2008): 56-87.
Xu, Jianhua, Xuesong Wang, and Shiqiu Zhang. &quot;Risk-based air pollutants management at regional levels.&quot; Environmental Science & Policy 25 (2013): 167-175.
Yu, Lingda, Guangfu Wang, Renjian Zhang, Leiming Zhang, Yu Song, Bingbing Wu, Xufang Li, Kun An, and Junhan Chu. &quot;Characterization and Source Apportionment of PM2. 5 in an Urban Environment in Beijing.&quot; Aerosol and Air Quality Research 13, no. 2 (2013): 574-583.
Yu, Yang, Nina Schleicher, Stefan Norra, Mathieu Fricker, Volker Dietze, Uwe Kaminski, Kuang Cen, and Doris Stüben. &quot;Dynamics and origin of PM 2.5 during a three-year sampling period in Beijing, China.&quot; Journal of Environmental Monitoring 13, no. 2 (2011): 334-346.
Zhang, Minsi, Yu Song, Xuhui Cai, and Jun Zhou. &quot;Economic assessment of the health effects related to particulate matter pollution in 111 Chinese cities by using economic burden of disease analysis.&quot; Journal of Environmental Management 88, no. 4 (2008): 947-954.
Zhang, Renjian, Junshan Jing, Jun Tao, Junji Cao, Lihua Zhu, Zhongming Chen, Yue Zhao, and Shen, Zhe. “Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing: seasonal perspective.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013):7053-7074.
Zheng, Mei, Lynn G. Salmon, James J. Schauer, Limin Zeng, C. S. Kiang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Glen R. Cass. &quot;Seasonal trends in PM2. 5 source contributions in Beijing, China.&quot; Atmospheric Environment 39, no. 22 (2005): 3967-3976.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
303401.pdf2309KbAdobe PDF388View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing