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Title: 革命觀念在中國的起源和演變
Other Titles: The Formation and Transformation of the Concept of Revolution in China
Authors: Guan-Tao Jin
Contributors: 中文系
Keywords: 革命;改良;反動;平等;觀念史
revolution;reformism;reaction;equality;history of ideas
Date: 2005.06
Issue Date: 2014-09-11 11:18:24 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文通過關鍵詞的統計分析以揭示革命觀念在中國的起源和演變,並以此為案例考察西方現代政治思想在傳入中國過程中如何被中國本土文化重構以形成當代政治思想的。「革命」的本意是天道周期性變化,自漢代開始用來指涉改朝換代。戊戌變法前,它或被看做王朝易姓,或用於指大動亂,具有負面價值。清王朝統治正當性的喪失使得改朝換代機制有可能呈現。1900年庚子事變後革命觀念興起,「改朝換代」和西方revolution意義結合,成為推翻清王朝建立新社會的正當性基礎。1901年清廷宣布推行新政,預備立憲等一系列改革取得某種效果時,做為改朝換代和徹底變革的「革命」不如改良主義重要。二十世紀初現代化運動引起的社會整合危機,終於導致新文化運動的爆發,改良主義的意識形態受到批判。西方revolution理念通過法國大革命、俄國十月革命等重大歷史事件為中介終於被納入中國傳統革命觀念的結構,產生了中國式現代革命觀。中國式現代革命觀同西方revolution最大不同在於:它還是天道。在新的天道中,進步成為宇宙規律,平等和取消一切差別變成代替儒家倫理的新時代道德。新文化運動後三十年,是中國式現代革命觀實現社會整合並成為政治制度正當性的時代。中國革命是學習西方民主共和制度失敗後尋找不同於西方的另一種現代社會模式的嘗試。由於中國式現代革命觀具有某種傳統的結構,二十世紀中國革命有著傳統改朝換代的影子(如依靠農民革命建立新政權)。文化大革命造成的巨大災難使得中國知識分子告別革命。中國式現代革命觀包含著新道德,告別革命也意味著中國在現代化過程中創造的新道德之解體。二十世紀末中國經濟的高速發展與普遍的道德危機是同時發生的。
This essay presents a quantitative study aimed at investigating the formation and transformation of the concept of revolution. By means of keyword analysis, the authors use the transformation of the concept of revolution as an example to illustrate the introduction and reconstruction of modern Western political thought by Chinese culture.Geming (revolution) is an ancient Chinese term for the predestined cycles governed by tiandao (the way of Heaven). During the Han dynasty, it was used to express dynastic changes. The abortive 1898 Reform was seen as the failure of the Qing government's efforts to reform itself and the legitimacy of its rule was thus undermined. The concept of revolution began to gain momentum after the 1900 Boxer Uprising. The traditional Chinese concept of dynastic changes merged with the Western concept of revolution. This conceptual hybrid was seen as a justification for the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of a new government. The social disintegration crisis triggeredby the modernization movement at the early twentieth century eventually resulted in the New Culture Movement, the Western idea of revolution was incorporated into the traditional Chinese concept of revolution and the modern Chinese concept of revolution emerged. In addition to senses like radical change, progression, this Chinese concept of revolution was associated the traditional notion of tiandao, which distinguished it from its Western counterpart.Thirty years after the New Culture Movement, the modern Chinese concept of revolution became a contributing factor of social integration and foundation of the legitimacy of political system. The Chinese revolutionism aimed at creating a modern society different to Western models after China's failure to learn Western democracy and republicanism. In the wake of the upheaval of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese intellectuals came to realize the necessity of bidding farewell to the revolution. The introduction of modern Western economic and political systems was once again placed in the forefront, but it also led to the disintegration of the new morality that took shape during China's modernization because such a morality was contained in the modern Chinese concept of revolution.
Relation: 政治與社會哲學評論, 13 , 1-51
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[中國文學系] 期刊論文

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