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Title: 接近真理的荒誕──試析哈爾姆斯中篇小說《老太婆》的荒誕詩學
Other Titles: The Poetics of Absurdity in D. Kharms? The Old Woman
Authors: 鄢定嘉
Yen, Ting-chia
Contributors: 斯語系
Keywords: 哈爾姆斯;奧貝利烏;老太婆;荒誕;末世意識
Kharms;Oberiu;The Old Woman;absurd;eschatology
Date: 2006-10
Issue Date: 2014-12-30 11:34:59 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 達尼爾‧哈爾姆斯(Даниил Хармс, 1905-1942,本名Даниил Иванович Ювачев)是俄國前衛派代表作家之一。詩歌為其二○年代創作的主要文體,三○年代則開始轉向散文創作,代表作有《淺藍色筆記本》、《事件集》、《老太婆》等。早期創作深受未來主義的影響,以「無意義詞語」表述其獨特的世界觀;後來與友人組成「區拿爾」、「奧貝利烏」等團體,寫作風格漸轉為荒誕。由於創作手法大膽前衛,被當局以「過於傾向形式主義」為由,二度被捕入獄,作品也全數遭禁,只能為兒童雜誌撰文以求溫飽。直至九○年代蘇聯瓦解後,哈爾姆斯被長期塵封地底的創作才得以重見天日。一九三九年六月完成的中篇小說《老太婆》(Старуха)是哈爾姆斯唯一大型著作,可視為作家創作手法的總合。他融合前衛藝術家馬丘興關於「擴展的視線」、「後腦勺的視線」的理論,將視界從九十度擴展至三百六十度,再運用陌生化的手法,將故事時間和因果關係倒置,還並置日常生活、神聖與怪誕等元素,表現濃厚的「末世意識」,並突顯所處時代的荒誕氛圍。本文從分析哈爾姆斯在《老太婆》的創作手法出發,窺探作家荒誕詩學的堂奧,及其兒童作家面具下的廬山真面目。
Daniil Kharms (1905-1942, Daniil Ivanovich Yuvachev) was a Russian avant-garde writer. Poetry was the main form of his literary work during the 1920s; by the 1930s, Kharms was concentrating more on prose. His representative works were The Blue Notebook, Incidents, The Old Woman and so on. Kharms’ early works, in which using “zaum” to present the unique view of world, were influenced by the futurism. In 1928, Daniil Kharms and his friends founded the avant-garde literary and artistic group “Oberiu”, or Union of Real Art, and then the style of Kharms’ works was leading its way to absurd. Due to his avant-garde artistic form, Kharms was arrested twice and all his works were banned by reason of “over inclination to formalism.” He had to earn his keep by writing for children’s magazines. In Russia, Kharms’ works, other than children’s literature, were widely published only from the late 1980s.The Old Woman, a story reaching almost epic proportions by Kharms' standards, has strong claims to be regarded as his masterpiece. He applied avant-garde artist Matyushin’s theory of “the widened sight”, expanding the line of sight from 90 to 360 degrees, manipulated technique of alienation to invert time and causality, and juxtaposed the elements of everyday life, sacredness, and grotesque to express the “eschatology” and reveal the absurd atmosphere in the era.This paper’s going to analyze the artistic technique of Kharms’ The Old Woman, and to make the attempt to understand his poetics of absurdity.
Relation: 俄語學報, 10, 25-44
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[斯拉夫語文學系] 期刊論文
[俄語學報 ] 期刊論文

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