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Title: 韓國的婚俗與禁忌之研究─以朝鮮朝至大韓帝國(1392~1910)為中心
Other Titles: Korean Weddings Customs and Taboos-The Research Centers on Yi Dynasty and the Empire of Korea
Authors: 黃弘之
Huang, Hung-chih
Contributors: 韓文系
Keywords: 婚姻;薩滿教;禁忌;禮儀;儒教;信仰
Date: 2008-01
Issue Date: 2015-02-11 11:49:49 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 韓民族自古以來極為重視禮俗,職事之故,素有「小中華」之美譽。然而,論及韓國傳統婚俗者,則更有其可觀之處。大體而言,韓式婚禮既是涉及傳統,不可否認者,頗多部分迄今仍舊承襲著中國相關之古禮,亦即韓民族藉助傳統中國禮儀之嚴密原則;試圖將新婚夫婦對未來所抱持之綺麗憧憬;及其存乎於精神與情感之平衡及和諧,藉此能夠共同建構出一種抽象且具備普遍性之完美結合體的殷切期盼下,是故將婚禮視之為聖禮。而這婚姻禮俗所進行之全般過程,事關夫妻之義務、家族之關係、血緣之傳承等等,其最大之特徵,即是集注於禮法之單純主觀性。然而,出生、婚姻、死亡乃人類一生最重要的三階段,在遠古時代因為文明未開,大致將前述之三階段,委之於大自然或者天地神明,因此,不同形式之原始宗教,諸如:精靈論、萬物有靈論(Animism)、圖騰信仰論(Totemism)、超自然魔力論(Manaism)、薩滿教(Shamanism)...等,便成為人類信仰世界中,千態萬狀之宗教內涵。不同之原始宗教,皆有其主觀性之宗教儀式,為了確保不致觸犯神靈,諸事皆能順遂進行,禁忌於焉產生。隨著歲月之推移,禁忌迄今仍然無所不在地投射於任何時代、任何由人類產生之文明裏。換言之,人們常適時、適地使用某些禁忌,用來確保易變、不定、無常且來之不易之『精神的平安』(the Peace of Spirit),卻是恆古不變。韓國之婚俗禮儀與禁忌,恰如一物之兩面,並早已依其普通之主體原則,非單純性地被發展成為結合了韓國傳統文化與符合韓國民族精神之產物。韓國之原始宗教源遠流長,其中以薩滿教最為著名,影響力迄今依舊滲透社會各階層,自有許多層面之婚俗禁忌,另外,韓國長期受到中華文化之影響、日本之殖民統治、歐風東漸的侵襲,以及南北兩韓國家的分裂與對立,外觀上韓國固有傳統文化,似乎有所式微的情形產生。但實際上,對於珍視傳統文化之韓國而言,雖則原以奉行周朝《禮記》之六禮,改成現今施行之四禮,但仍然其備著韓國特有的婚俗特色。本研究係針對韓國婚俗禮儀與禁忌,探討韓國各地區之婚俗禮儀,以及探討其背後所傳達的內涵,與其存在之真正價值與意義,此外,並找尋隱藏其中的禁忌,最終之研究目的則設定在跨文化之比較研究上,期能更進一步發掘出韓國婚俗禮儀、禁忌與他國,諸如:中國、日本或南島文化共通或相異之處。
Koreans (Han Kyo Rae) have been giving weight to ceremonial since the ancient time. It would be fascinating while we enter the world of Korean traditional wedding customs. Generally, Korean traditional wedding custom is deeply affected by Chinese traditions. Koreans combine the sacred ceremony with profound etiquette and the expectation of the newlywed couples, wishing to bring spirit and sentiment into harmony. The process of the wedding is related to couples' responsibility, family relationship and ties of blood. Although the wedding customs of nowadays would change with each passing day, people still value ceremonial beyond all things.Customs change their look little by little as time goes by, and it seems a common phenomenon in almost every country, especially in Korea. Koreans legislate against marrying person with the same surname or on the distaff side, and they make much of social class, the special style of marriage strongly confirms Classendogamy. Females were taught to strictly obey the rules which were given by the society. Women have to be absolutely chaste and undefiled, the woman whose husband died would be a widow for her life time, remarrying is prohibited. Besides, the ancient Korean palace had strong demand for young girls as maidservants or for the usage of paying tribute, the marriage of people who were in different political parties were not allowed as well. These commandments of marriage made various political and social problems bubbled up to the surface. It also had influence for the folks. Civilians tended to get married early, however the form of marriage brought about many unfortunate stories.Taboo is usually related to religions, it means something declares as sacred or forbidden. In Korean folk religion, tidy and filthy, decent and moral anarchy are in opposing or confronting positions. Taboos make people away from being tainted with carrion or impureness. Human beings' natural born fear of unknown and instinct of self-preservation would trigger for taboos' occurrence.Through facial features, human beings can directly accept various sensory stimulation, they are able to judge some unpleasant message and try to get away from it, too. Those unpleasant elements are the models of taboos, and they have some features in common: they are abnormal, unpredictable, and easily provoke people to be dreadful. Corpse, catamenia, dejecta, ghost and some animals relate with time and space, constructing a profound world. Taboos grow and evaluate with human history, here I would like to introduce the Korean tradition wedding custom which revolves around Choson, and analyse the wisdom between taboos and customs.
Relation: 文化越界, 1(1), 1-26
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[韓國語文學系] 期刊論文

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