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|Other Titles:||The Construction of Korean National Literary Theory and Its Primary Foci: Considering Paik Nak-chung's National Literary Theory|
Korean literature;national literature;national literary theory;Korean national literary theory
|Issue Date:||2015-07-06 17:27:27 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||與台灣的情況類似，韓國現代文學成立於 19 世紀末西方列強和日本展開帝國主義侵略之際，並在歷經 36 年的日本殖民統治，以及光復後持續的民族分裂局面中，逐漸建立起其文學的方向，因此，以民族處境為主要思考前提的民族文學論，成了能夠規範及推動 20 世紀韓國現代文學運動的強大理念。在韓國，民族文學論的成立和發展，係隨著不同時期韓民族所面對的時代課題和歷史任務而具有的不同內涵變遷而來。例如，日據時期的民族文學論，乃是藉著階級文學和民族主義文學的對立而摸索出方向；光復初期，則又在批判過去狹隘的階級文學主張的氛圍中，建立了人民民族主義性質的民族文學論；進入六七○年代，圍繞著純粹文學和現實參與文學、民眾文學和勞動文學、現實主義創作方法等議題，展開過激烈的文學論爭和針鋒相對的對話，在此過程中，民族文學論的目標、方向和內涵，遂成為韓國文學界最為受到重視的主題。不過，自從 80 年代後期開始，伴隨著社會主義國家的相繼沒落，以及緊接而來的全球化情境的影響，它也因而受到後現代主義大敘事的沒落危機和日常瑣碎的全面抬頭之衝擊，從而以克服階級矛盾和民族矛盾為主要焦點的民族文學論，乃面臨著新的挑戰。本文將透過各個時期的論爭內涵，整理出韓國民族文學論的建構過程及其焦點，接著再進一步以當代理論家白樂晴的民族文學論作為主幹，簡單介紹韓國民族文學論所關注的核心內容和其水準。希望這些介紹和考察，不僅可以幫助我們了解韓國文學如何付出心血以因應自身的時代、歷史任務，同時對現階段以自我主體性的確保和認同正努力摸索著共識的台灣文學界，也能夠帶來一個可供參考的方向。|
Not unlike the situation in Taiwan, Modern Korean literature was established at the end of the 19th century when western countries and Japan invaded during their imperialistic expansion. It gradually established its literary direction during the 36 years of Japanese colonization and continuing national separation after restoration. Therefore, the national literary theory, primarily based on consideration of the plight of the people, has become a powerful force that drove the modernization of Korean literature in the 20th century. In Korea, the establishment and the development of an ethnic literary theory has changed with different temporal exigencies and historical vicissitudes faced by Koreans in different periods of time. For example, national literary theory during Japanese colonization searched for its direction from the opposition between class literature and nationalist literature; in the early years of restoration, amid an atmosphere of criticizing the past's narrowly conceived class literature, national literary theory was based on the very nature of nationalism. In the 1960s and 1970s, the focus had turned to pure literature, committed literature, popular literature, labor literature and creative techniques stemming from realism, generating heated literary debates and confrontational discourses. The goals, direction and nature of national literary theory have gradually gained the attention of, and emphasis in, the field of Korean literature. But in the latter years of the 1980s, with the decline of socialist countries and the ensuing global development, it has suffered from the impact of post-modernism's diminishing concern for grand narratives and concurrent turn to everyday matters. Therefore, national literary theory, which was based on overcoming the discrepancies of classes and nationalities, was faced with new challenges. This article will summarize the construction and foci of Korean naitonal literature through the nature of the contentions in each period. Furthermore, based on the national literary theory of Paik Nak-chung, a contemporary theorist, this article will introduce the core values and standards of Korean national literary theories. I hope that these introductions and observations will not only help us understand how Korean literature has accommodated temporal exigencies and historical vicissitudes, but also bring reference to the literature community in Taiwan, which works hard on searching for a common ground in ensuring self-contained subjectivity and identity.
|Appears in Collections:||[Department of Chinese Literature] Periodical Articles|
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