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Title: 世界語言中分類詞、性別詞與複數標記的分與合: GIS的類型學研究
A GIS Typological Analysis of the Convergence and Divergence among Numeral Classifiers, Genders and Plural Markers in the World’s Languages
Authors: 唐威洋
Tang, Marc
Contributors: 何萬順
Her, One Soon
Tang, Marc
Keywords: 分類詞
Numeral classifier
Plural marker
Geographic information system
Date: 2015
Issue Date: 2015-07-27 11:15:20 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本論文的主要目的在對於分類詞、性別詞以及複數標記在語言當中的地域分佈提出解釋.在前人的研究當中,這三項元素被認為是名詞句中平衡資訊的重要工具(Greenberg, 1990; Aikhenvald, 2000):分類詞語言主要位於東南亞和南美洲部分地區,而具有性別詞或複數標記的語言大多出現在歐洲、非洲和美洲部分地區.我們提出的論證如下:即便這三樣元素外表上具有歧異,它們會呈現當今所見的地域分佈原因在於它們共有的兩項標記功能:可數性質及語意分類.分類詞同時滿足兩者而性別詞及複數標記分別滿足其一;依照此邏輯,我們預測有分類詞的語言不會同時具有性別詞及複數標記而反之亦然.本文中我們透過句法形式和語意功能的比較提出論證並透過類型學、地理及歷史的角度分析來自世界上最大的二十個語系(印歐,漢藏,亞非,尼日爾-剛果,南島,達羅毗荼,阿爾泰,南亞,壯侗,尼羅-撒哈拉,烏拉,高加索,等語系)的155個語言.架構上,第一章簡單對研究題目進行介紹,第二章呈現前人研究的匯整,第三章包含我們的理論論證以及我們對於分類詞、性別詞及複數標記分與合的解釋.隨後的第四章中,我們提出類型學和地理資訊系統(GIS)的證據;最後在第五張和第六章我們分別點出本研究的限制以及結論.
This thesis aims at providing an explanation for the typological and areal distribution between numeral classifiers, genders (noun classes) and grammatical plural markers. Within previous studies, these three components are considered as different devices to balance information in noun phrases (Greenberg, 1990; Aikhenvald, 2000). Numeral classifier languages are mainly present in South-East Asia and parts of South-America, while languages with genders and grammatical plural markers are generally attested in Europe, Africa and parts of the Americas. We propose that despite their apparent divergence, the three elements display this particular geographical distribution due to their convergent features of count/mass distinction and semantic classification: Numeral classifiers carry both functions, while genders and plural markers separately fulfill one of them. Following this logic, we expect that a language with numeral classifier do not have simultaneously the systems of genders plus plural markers and vice-versa. Theoretical evidence via formal syntactic form and semantic function comparison is proposed and further supported by typological, geographical and historical analysis of 155 languages that are mainly part of the 20 biggest language groups in the world, e.g. Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, Afro-Asiatic, Niger-Congo, Austronesian, Dravidian, Japonic, Altaic, Austro-Asiatic, Tai-Kadai, Creole, Nilo-Saharan, Uralic, Quechuan, Hmong-Mien, Mayan, North Caucasian, Language isolates among others. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction of the subject while chapter 2 displays the literature review. Chapter 3 includes our theoretical discussion proposing explaining the convergence and divergence among numeral classifiers, genders and plural markers, followed by typological and geographical evidence via GIS (Geographic Information System) in Chapter 4. Finally Chapter 5 and 6 contain the limitations of our study and its conclusion.
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