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Title: 世界語言中數詞與分類詞詞序與結構的類型學研究
Other Titles: Numerals and Classifiers: A Typological Study of Word Orders and Structures in the World’s Languages
Authors: 何萬順
Contributors: 語言學研究所 
Keywords: 數詞;分類詞;量詞;詞序;型態學
numerals;classifier;measure word;word order;typology
Date: 2014
Issue Date: 2015-08-05 13:50:47 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 數詞(Num)、分類詞/量詞(C/M)、名詞(N)在世界語言中有四種詞序(Greenberg 1990[1972]:185, Aikhenvald 2000:104-105)。 (1) a. √ [Num C/M N] (many languages, e.g., Chinese) b. √ [N Num C/M] (many languages e.g., Thai) c. √ [C/M Num N] (few languages e.g., Ibibio (Niger-Congo)) d. √ [N C/M Num] (few languages e.g., Jingpho (Tibeto-Burman)) e. * [C/M N Num] (no languages)1 f. * [Num N C/M] (no languages) 在我目前的兩年期國科會計畫中發現,從未有任何研究試圖在一個嚴謹的句法理論 中解釋以上的詞序類型,其中所影含的普遍原則我們將稱為(1GREENBERG’S UNIVERSAL 20A. (2) Greenberg’s Universal 20A (1): 數詞(Num)、分類詞/量詞(C/M)、名詞(N)可任意排列,但Num與C/M 必須緊鄰。 (2): Num與C/M的詞序,Num > C/M為無標。 Cinque (2005)給於我們研究的啟發,他成功的解釋了Greenberg’s Universal 20下關於 D、Num、A、N的所有詞序及其例外。因此,計畫的目標有三個:  建立一個世界分類詞語言中分類詞詞序的資料庫,同時建立世界分類 詞語言中的數詞系統資料庫。兩個資料庫都將依據詞序類型加以類型 學的分類。  提出一個整一的理論來解釋 Universal 20A,並且能連帶的解釋 Universal 20。我們也將探討此項分析在理論與應用上的種種意涵,包 括以下幾個領域:第一與第二語言習得、數詞習得、失語症及語言喪 失、語言教學、數學教學等。  收集並且重新檢視漢語 3000 年歷史發展中數詞及分類詞演變的語料及 文獻,並且在解釋Universal 20A 的普遍語法理論的架構下,對漢語分 類詞的發展提出理論分析。
Of the three elements, numeral (Num), classifier/measure word (C/M), and N, only four orders are attested (Greenberg 1990[1972]:185, Aikhenvald 2000:104-105). (1) a. √ [Num C/M N] (many languages, e.g., Chinese) b. √ [N Num C/M] (many languages e.g., Thai) c. √ [C/M Num N] (few languages e.g., Ibibio (Niger-Congo)) d. √ [N C/M Num] (few languages e.g., Jingpho (Tibeto-Burman)) e. * [C/M N Num] (no languages)1 f. * [Num N C/M] (no languages) Research conducted in my current two-year NSC project has revealed that there has not been any study attempting to derive the C/M word order typology in a rigorous theoretical framework and thus also make an attempt at proposing universal principles or constraints underlying this typology, which we shall rephrase and dub GREENBERG’S UNIVERSAL 20A. (2) Greenberg’s Universal 20A Part 1: Of the three elements Num, C/M, and N, any order is possible as long as Num and C/M are adjacent. Part 2: Of the two elements Num and C/M, the preferred, thus unmarked, order is Num > C/M. Inspired by Cinque (2005), that successfully derives Greenberg’s Universal 20 and exceptions (concerning the orders of D, Num, A, and N), this study aims to derive Universal 20A and also accounts for its exceptions. We have three objectives.  To build a comprehensive database of the classifier languages in the world, one that focuses on the attested C/M word orders in each language as well as the numeral system employed in the language. A Typological taxonomy will be derived for C/M word orders, and likewise a typological taxonomy of the numeral systems in classifier languages.  To put forth a theoretical account that can fully derive the two parts of Greenberg’s Universal 20A and ideally also incorporates Cinque’s (2005) account that successfully derive Greenberg’s Universal 20. The various implications of this account will also be explored, in terms of first and second language acquisition, acquisition of numerals, aphasia and loss of numerals, language loss, language teaching, mathematics teaching, among others.  To collect and re-examine the developmental data on the numeral system and the C/M word order variations in the 3,000 years of recorded history in Chinese and to put forth a theoretical account for the variation and developments, one that is based on the account derived from the second objective.
Relation: NSC101-2410-H004-184-MY3
Data Type: report
Appears in Collections:[語言學研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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