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Title: 歐洲聯盟推動建構多元文化主義的發展與挑戰:兼論法、比實施禁戴伊斯蘭面紗之比較與借鏡
Other Titles: The Multiculturalism of the European Union:Beginning with the Prohibition Policy of the Islamic Headscarf in France and Belgium
Authors: 張台麟
Contributors: 歐洲語文學程
Keywords: 歐洲聯盟;多元文化主義;民主與人權;宗教自由;伊斯蘭面紗
European Union;Multiculturalism;Democracy and Human Rights;Freedom of Religions;Islamic Headscarf
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2016-04-15 11:49:46 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 歐洲聯盟統合的發展過程之初雖然是以經濟和安全等議題為優先,但對文化的領域 也提出了一些理想與目標。歐洲共同體條約第151 條就揭示了應致力於發展會員國的文 化以及維護並促進文化的多樣性。2007 年5 月10 日歐盟執委會提出了「全球化下的歐 盟文化計畫」並勾勒出未來文化政策的策略與重點。2007 年12 月14 的歐盟布魯塞爾高 峰會議的結論報告中再度強調推動文化政策與提升競爭力的決心2009 年的里斯本條約 架構下「歐洲聯盟基礎條約」第2 條揭示,歐盟認同社會中多元化、非歧視、寬容、公 正、團結和男女平等的價值為會員國所共有。此外,「歐洲聯盟運作條約」第167 條也 強調了,在尊重會員國和區域多元性並發展共同文化遺產的基礎上促進會員國的文化繁 榮。2010 年12 月2 日歐盟部長理事會更進一步確立一項「2011-2014 年文化推動綱領」; 2011 年7 月又提出了「歐盟外籍移民融合計畫」。由這些法理依據和發展過程可以看出 歐盟長期在推動文化多元與融合政策上的努力。 不過,隨著2010 年10 月16 日、2011 年2 月5 日以及2 月11 日德國總理梅克爾 (Angela Merkel)、英國首相柯麥隆(David Cameron)、以及法國總統薩柯吉(Nicola Sarkozy)三位陸續發表對歐洲實施的多元文化主義面臨失敗的言論、2011 年4 月間法 國和比利時相繼通過立法禁止伊斯蘭教婦女在公共場所穿戴罩頭面紗、以及8 月和12 月間挪威及比利時青年陸續犯下恐怖爆炸及集體殺戮等事件發展所引發出人權和宗教 自由的爭辯,因而導致歐洲聯盟及其會員國在推動多元文化主義的理念與實踐上遭遇到 許多衝擊和挑戰。就台灣而言,基於民主化、自由化與國際化的發展以及日益增加的新 移民與文化,多元文化的理論與實踐也愈來愈受到重視,未來政府如何制定並推動一個 具前瞻性且務實的多元文化主義和政策是一個嚴肅的課題。有鑑於此,本研究首先將就 多元文化主義的理念與特色予以探討,其次就歐洲聯盟及其會員國在推動和落實多元文 化主義的策略及發展加以研究,之後將特別就法國和比利時兩國實施禁戴伊斯蘭罩頭面 紗的背景與影響為例做深入之研究,最後則進一步就台灣的發展與現況加以比較並提出 借鏡之處。
At the beginning of the European integration, the multicultural perspective was not a top priority. With the deepening and broadening of the European Union, the EU has payed more and more attention to the field of culture policy and the promotion of cultural diversity. In 2009, The Treaty of Lisbon has emphasized the importance of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue in order to promote the european fondamental values and multiculturalism.On the December of 2010, the Council of the European Union has adopted a Working Plan in favour of Culture 2011-2014. On the July of 2011, the European Commission has also proposed “European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals” in order to reinforce the european integration. This puts the multiculturaslism in the centre of the European Agenda. However, the fact that the cooperation in terms of culture and integration is always a privileged domain of each member state, and after the speechs of European leaders on the recognition of the failure of multiculturalism in Europe, the prohibition policy of the islamic headscarf in France and Belgium, the European Union is facing a great challenge on the issues dealing with the multiculturalism, freedom of religions and human rights. For Taiwan, with the democratization and liberalization of the political regime during the past 30 years, the Government has paid more and more attention to the issue of the culture diversity. In Mai 2009, the fact that the two international conventions (civil and political rights and social, economic and cultural rights) have been signed by the authorities was significant. However, with the open policy on the immigration and the Cross-strait relations, Taiwan should develop international cooperation and learn from the international experiences in order to strengthen on the one hand Taiwan's savoir-faire in the multiculturalist policy, and establish on the other hand its systems and legal frameworks. The purpose of this research project is, firstly, to explore and discuss the history of the EU's multiculturalist development and its structure and strategic basis, then to analyze the EU's actions and results on the push for the common policy in terms of the culturral diversity and integration, thirdly to study the prohibition of islamic headscarf in France and Belgium as well as its impacts, finally to make a comparison to the current situation of Taiwan and try to give a few concrete and insightful advices on the future of the multiculturalist policy.
Relation: 計畫編號 NSC101-2410-H004-114
Data Type: report
Appears in Collections:[歐洲語文學系] 國科會研究計畫

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