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Title: 中國近世徽州家族的建立
Other Titles: The Lineage Formation in Huizhou in Late Imperial China
Authors: 劉祥光
Contributors: 歷史學系
Keywords: 徽州;家族;祠堂;族譜;理學
Huizhou;lineage;the ancestral hall;genealogy;Neo-Confucianism
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2016-04-18 09:29:52 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在中國明清商業史中,徽州商人實佔一席重要之地,因此引起學者的注意。而隨著 上個世紀末與本世紀初徽州各類文書的開放與出版,更引起了一股徽州研究的熱潮。在 此同時,經由調查各重要圖書館的收藏,更發現了徽州族譜數量龐大,是以也引起了學 者研究的興趣。清初大學士趙吉士曾形容家鄉徽州的家族是「千年之塚,不動一抔;千 丁之族,未嘗散處;千載之譜系,絲毫不紊;主僕之嚴,數十世不改。」這個說辭並不 算誇大。 過去十年,研究徽州家族的著作不少,研究中國聚族的著作更多。但是學者都認為 徽州家族在明代16 世紀有新的轉向,而成為今天這種面貌。而探討中國家族形成的學 者,也都認為16 世紀是建立祠堂,編纂家譜的聚族時代。這個說法難說錯,但徽州的 情形有必要再考慮。很據筆者的初步觀察,徽州在15 世紀就出現了──其他學者所主 張的──16 世紀聚族的情形。不僅如此,觀察聚族的情形,有必要將眼光拉回到宋元二 代的聚族努力。徽州的文獻可以提供這部分材料。有了徽州的案例,我們更能瞭解中國 近世以來家族成立的經過。
The merchants of Huizhou played an important role in Ming-Qing commercial history, which have attracted many scholars’ attention over the years. As various documents of Huizhou become more accessible in the last and this centuries, there appears a fever of the study of this area. Moreover, after surveying research libraries in China, scholars discovered the sheer quantity of genealogies of the place, which also interests scholars to work on Huizhou lineages. A famous scholar-official, Zhao Jishi, described the lineages in Huizhou in early Qing as “of the tombs more then a thousand years, not a single handful of soil had been taken away; of a lineage more than a thousand men, not a household had live apart; of the genealogies more then a thousand years, the records had never mistaken; the demarcation between masters and servants had never been changed.” Zhao’s rhetoric is not far away from reality. There are many works on Huizhou lineages, and even more on formation of Chinese lineages in general over the last decades. Nevertheless, almost all scholars on Huizhou suggest there was a turn in the sixteenth century that made the lineage as what the look nowadays. And almost all scholars on the formation of Chinese lineage also argue that the sixteenth century is a period of formation of lineages by establishing ancestral halls and compilation of genealogies. However, my preliminary observation convinces me that what happened in the formation of lineages in the sixteenth century had already appeared in the fifteenth century in Huizhou. Moreover, to understand the formation of lineages, we need to examine the situation in Song and Yuan dynasties, and the abundance of Huizhou sources enable us to do such research. The case of Huizhou can give us a more detailed picture in the process of the formation of Chinese lineage.
Relation: 計畫編號 NSC 101-2410-H004-132
Data Type: report
Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 國科會研究計畫

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