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Title: 大夏金器——阿富汗北部席巴爾甘墓葬文物所展現的月氏/貴霜文化風貌
Authors: 張文玲
Keywords: 大夏;大月氏;貴霜;安息;黃金之丘
Date: 2005-11
Issue Date: 2016-05-06 11:50:27 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 從大夏滅亡到貴霜王朝建立的這段被史學家稱為「黑暗時期」的歷史,過去一直礙於文獻及出土文物之不足而晦暗不明。一九七八年十一月在蘇俄考古學家維克多.沙里阿尼迪(V.I.Sarianidi)所領導的由蘇俄及阿富汗雙方考古人員組成的考古隊,在北阿富汗席巴爾甘城(Shibarghan)北方不遠處的Tillja-tepe(意即「黃金之丘」)發現了西元前一世紀至西元一世紀早期貴霜王朝的墓葬,出土物有兩萬件之多。這批寶藏的出現,可以部份填補這段「黑暗時期」的歷史空白,目前關於這項重大考古發掘報告之相關著作其內容並不一致,本文對主持此次考古挖掘的蘇俄考古家維克多.沙里阿尼迪之考古記實作了清楚詳實的翻譯、整理與描述,提供了此一領域研究的中文參考資料。此外,本文對這批墓葬文物作了詳細的分析與探討,其中有關古代草原民族的服飾、大月氏/貴霜之墓葬習俗、安息及古印度錢幣,以及大夏金器等課題都是現今已發表之中文著作所罕見的內容。故此文之研究成果實有助於國人從不同角度去了解大夏、大月氏、貴霜——這些原本因限於中國史籍有限文字記載,而令人印象模糊的中亞古國——的文化內涵,並進而較具體看到古代西域各民族文化相互交流影響的軌跡與結果,同時也提供了關於統治大夏,且最後攻滅其他四翎侯而建立貴霜王朝的貴霜翎侯,究竟是大月氏人還是當地的大夏人?此一爭論的一個判斷參考依據。
Historians call the historical period between the end of the Bactria kingdom and the establishment of the Kushan dynasty “the black period.” In November of 1978, Russian archaeologist V. I. Sarianidi led an archaeological group of Russian and Afghanistan archaeologists to Tillja-tepe (“golden hill” in English). Here they discovered graves that date from 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D and could be considered from the early Kushan period. The location of Tillja-tepe is near the northern part of Shibarghan city in northern Afghanistan. Over 20,000 objects were found in the graves. The excavation of these treasures gives scholars a partial understanding of the history concerning “the black period.” The various publications about this important excavation are contradictory and none of them give the same account. This paper closely translates and analyzes the reports written by V. I. Sarianidi. Moreover, it offers a Chinese reference for researchers of this field. In addition, I discuss and analyze the burial objects from the graves. In this paper, I discuss topics such as the costumes of the nomads from the Euroasian steppes, the burial customs of Yueh-chi/ Kushan, the Pathian coins as well as ancient Indian coins and Bactrian gold objects. There are very few current Chinese publications about the subjects mentioned above. Therefore, the research of this paper helps the reader to understand from different points of view the ancient cultures of Central Asia (Bactria, Yueh-chi and Kushan), which before had been relatively unfamiliar to scholars due to little historical documentation. The analysis of this paper allows the reader to recognize the traces and results of the cultural exchange between the different races in ancient Central Asia. Moreover, the paper explores and offers possible solutions to an important question concerning the ethnic origins of the one of the five tribes who conquered the Bactrian kingdom and then established the Kushan dynasty.
Relation: 民族學報, 24,65-114
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[民族學界(民族學報)] 期刊論文

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