Historians call the historical period between the end of the Bactria kingdom and the establishment of the Kushan dynasty “the black period.” In November of 1978, Russian archaeologist V. I. Sarianidi led an archaeological group of Russian and Afghanistan archaeologists to Tillja-tepe (“golden hill” in English). Here they discovered graves that date from 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D and could be considered from the early Kushan period. The location of Tillja-tepe is near the northern part of Shibarghan city in northern Afghanistan. Over 20,000 objects were found in the graves. The excavation of these treasures gives scholars a partial understanding of the history concerning “the black period.” The various publications about this important excavation are contradictory and none of them give the same account. This paper closely translates and analyzes the reports written by V. I. Sarianidi. Moreover, it offers a Chinese reference for researchers of this field. In addition, I discuss and analyze the burial objects from the graves. In this paper, I discuss topics such as the costumes of the nomads from the Euroasian steppes, the burial customs of Yueh-chi/ Kushan, the Pathian coins as well as ancient Indian coins and Bactrian gold objects. There are very few current Chinese publications about the subjects mentioned above. Therefore, the research of this paper helps the reader to understand from different points of view the ancient cultures of Central Asia (Bactria, Yueh-chi and Kushan), which before had been relatively unfamiliar to scholars due to little historical documentation. The analysis of this paper allows the reader to recognize the traces and results of the cultural exchange between the different races in ancient Central Asia. Moreover, the paper explores and offers possible solutions to an important question concerning the ethnic origins of the one of the five tribes who conquered the Bactrian kingdom and then established the Kushan dynasty.