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Title: 再論吐蕃的「赭面」習俗
Authors: 李永憲
Li, Yong-xian
Keywords: 赭面;吐蕃王朝時期;青海墓葬;吐蕃的勢力擴張與文化影響
Zhimaim;Tibet-Bo;Graves in Qinghai;Expansion and Impact of Tibet-Bo Kingdom
Date: 2006-12
Issue Date: 2016-05-06 11:50:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「赭面」是古代西藏的面飾習俗。近年來在青海果裏木、熱水兩地的墓葬中出土了一批木板彩畫,畫中再現了吐蕃時期流行的「赭面」是一種不分性別與等級身分的面部妝飾。這種「赭面」妝均是在額角、鼻、下巴、兩頰等面部凸出部位塗以紅彩,塗點在數量、部位上呈對稱狀。兩處墓地的時代皆為八世紀,兩墓的墓主可能為吐蕃王朝時期其勢力區的上層人物。文獻中的吐蕃「赭面」,見於《舊唐書》中有關貞觀十五年唐朝文成公主進藏時所見風俗的記載。作為高原文化的一個標誌,「赭面」習俗是隨著吐蕃王朝勢力向北方的擴張而出現在青海和其他地區,並一度對唐代的長安地區也有影響。《隋書》記載了早于吐蕃王朝時期的「女國」時期,西藏北部和西部的獵牧部落中有「以彩塗面」的習俗,可以說明吐蕃時期的「赭面」,可能是源於西藏更早的獵牧部落。吐蕃王朝滅亡之後,「赭面」習俗仍在藏西、北遊牧部落中保持下來並延續至今,這一古老的面飾傳統始終都是西藏高原文化的一個特色。
Zhimain is a custom of Make-up by red color in ancient Tibet. In recent years, the custom of Zhimian, popular back then among Tibet-Bo Kingdom, has been found in Graves of Guolimu(果裏木)、Reshui(熱水) in Qinghai in colored drawings of wood blocks, which is a facial decoration regardless of gender and caste. They have the same pattern: make-up in red on the protruding parts of face such as forehead, nose, chin and cheek, and the make-up points on two sides of the cheek are symmetrical in terms of the number and position. Both graveyards are in 800 AD or so, and the hosts of them were in a higher level of Tibet-Bo Period and Tibet-Bo Kingdom’s Sheikhdom. The referring of Zhimian in Tibet-Bo can date back as early as 641AD (貞觀十五年) as a custom met by Princess Wencheng when she settled in Tibet, as the Historical record Tangshu(舊唐書). As the mark of Plateau Cultural, Zhimian once emerged in Qinghai and other areas with the expansion of Tibet-Bo’s impact, and affected Chang’an area in Tang Dynasty. In an earlier time as the Historical record Shuishu(隋書), there existed a custom of “painting face with colors」, and the origin of Tibet-Bo’s Zhimian, might be from hunting and herbing tribes in North-West Part of Tibet plateau. After the perdition of Tibet-Bo Kingdom, Zhimian was only preserved in part of the hunting and herding tribes in northwest of Tibet, and still exists today, which is always a feature of the plateau culture.
Relation: 民族學報, 25,21-40
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[民族學界(民族學報)] 期刊論文

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