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A Cross-cultural Study on EFL Responding to Indirect Requests
Fan, Ko Yu
Yu ,Ming Chung
Fan, Ko Yu
responses to indirect requests
cross cultural studies
|Issue Date:||2016-05-09 13:31:57 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||本論文主要在探索間接請求語的回應策略，針對以英語為外語的台灣高中生做討論。共有120位受試者，分為3組，即以英語為母語的(Native American)高中生，以中文為母語的（Native Chinese）高中生，及以英語為外語的(Learning English as a Foreign Language)高中生。每組均有40位受試者，且男女數目相同。主要的實驗工具是「完成對話問卷」(DCT)，設計上有12個真實生活的情境，並以請求語的種類(傳統間接請求、非傳統間接請求)作為變因。所有回應策略被分成四類。策略(一)僅有是否、(S1 yes/ no alone)、策略(二)是否加上資訊或動作(S2 yes/ no plus information or action)、策略(三)資訊或動作(S3 information or action)及策略(四)其他(S4 others)。本研究量化方面以卡方檢定來辨別三組間是否有顯著差異，並輔以質性研究作為進一步的分析以求更全盤瞭解各策略的使用。
結果發現，普遍來說，台灣高中生在語用能力上仍顯不足。第二點、三組受試者在回應間接請求語上有不同的表現。以英文為母語的受試者偏好使用策略(二)是否加上資訊或動作(S2 yes/ no plus information or action)，而以英語為外語的高中生和以中文為母語的高中生卻都較偏愛使用策略(三)資訊或動作(S3 information or action)。第三點、以英文為外語的高中生在英語的使用上雖然有受到外語文化的影響，但其母語(即中文)對於其第二語言的使用影響更深遠。此外，三組受試者對於不同形式(CID, NCID)的間接請求語，在回應上採用不同的策略。再者，本研究顯示社會文化在請求語及其回應上扮演著重要的角色，在某個文化中被接受的語言使用可能在另一個文化中是不恰當的。最後，根據本文的探討，提出一些在英語學習與教學及日後研究的應用與建議。
This study aims to explore and discuss the strategy use of EFL senior high school students in Taiwan when they respond to indirect requests. One hundred and twenty senior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into 3 groups--- native Americans (NA), native Chinese (NC), and EFL (English as a Foreign Language). There were 40 participants in each group, and the number of males and females were the same. The main instrument in this study was Discourse Completion Task (DCT), designed with 12 real life situations. One variable in the DCT was the different types of indirect requests--- Conventional Indirect (CID) and Non-conventional Indirect (NCID).
The participants’ responses were divided into four exclusive categories, namely, S1 (yes/ no alone), S2 (yes/ no plus information or action), S3 (information or action) and S4 (others). To provide the quantitative results, Chi-square was employed to test the presence of statistically significant difference existing across the three groups. In addition, qualitative analysis was conducted to fully understand the employment of each strategy.
The result showed that high school students in Taiwan generally had deficient pragmatic competence. Second, the three participant groups performed differently when responding to indirect requests. It was found that the NA group tended to select Yes/ no plus information or action (S2) whereas the NC and EFL groups preferred to employ Information or action (S3). Third, the performance of the EFL group heavily followed their L1’s cultural norms, although some of their behavior was influenced by the culture of their target language. In addition, participants among three groups tended to use different respondent strategies when encountering different indirect requests, namely, CID and NCID. Furthermore, this study also found that cultural norms play a crucial role in responses to requests. The influence of cultural norms should never be neglected because an acceptable behavior in one culture may be very inappropriate in another. At last, according to the findings, this study hoped to give some suggestions and implications for English learning and teaching as well as the future research.
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