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Title: 闖入花園的龍—大陸及台灣NIMBY抗議事件之比較與分析
A dragon in the garden: A comparative analysis of NIMBY protests in China and Taiwan
Authors: 曹嘉傑
Roth, Jacob
Contributors: 冷則剛
Leng, Tse Kang
Roth, Jacob
Keywords: NIMBY
environmental protest
environmental governance
Xiamen PX
Lukang DuPont
Date: 2010
Issue Date: 2016-05-09 15:47:02 (UTC+8)
Abstract: Both China and Taiwan have experienced impressive economic growth through rapid industrialization that has resulted in a higher standard of living for citizens on the one hand, but has come at the cost of severe environmental degradation on the other. One of the byproducts of this economic growth and accompanying environmental stress has been an increased awareness among citizens of their living environment. And this newfound environmental consciousness can be manifested through various forms of protest when concerned citizens feel that their rights have been infringed upon by either the government or an offending industry. This thesis is concerned chiefly with the evolution of environmental protests in China and Taiwan, and explores two specific cases that are examples of a classic NIMBY-style (not-in-my-back-yard) protest: the anti-DuPont movement in Lukang, Taiwan from 1986-87 and the anti-PX movement in Xiamen, China from 2006-07. Both events have been hailed as watersheds in their respective polities’ environmental movements because they represent improved public participation in environmental protection activities. Whereas reactive protests had been the norm before, the events in Lukang and Xiamen showed that preventive measures, taken before citizens’ environmental rights can be potentially violated, was and still is possible. What make these NIMBY protests all the more fascinating and worthy of further exploration are the respective political backdrops during which they occurred—in Taiwan before the lifting of martial law, and in China when mass demonstrations are seldom allowed to proceed. This thesis will explore the main components of the Lukang and Xiamen protests and conduct a comparative analysis of their organizations, the events that transpired, as well as the official responses with which they were met. It is hoped that this thesis shows how the events in Xiamen echo those from Lukang some twenty years before, and that it provides some insight into the expanding role of citizens in environmental protection activities in both China and Taiwan.
Reference: I. Books and Journal Articles

Arrigo, Linda and Puleston, Gaia. 2006. “The Environmental Movement in Taiwan after 2000: Advances and Dilemmas.” In What has changed? Taiwan Before and After the Change in Ruling Parties, ed. Dafydd Fell, Hennig Klöter, and Chang Bi-yu, 165-184. Weisbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Chan, Deborah C. 1993. “The Environmental Dilemma in Taiwan,” East Asia, Vol. 12, Number 1 (January): 35-57.

Deglopper, Donald R. 1980. “Lu-kang: A City and Its Trading System.” In China’s Island Frontier: Studies in the Historical Geography of Taiwan, ed. Ronald G. Knapp, 143-166. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Esarey, Ashley, and Xiao, Qiang. 2008. “Political Expression in the Chinese Blogosphere: Below the Radar.” Asian Survey, Vol. 48, Issue 5: 752-772.

Economy, Elizabeth. 2007. “Environmental Governance: the Emerging Economic Dimension.” In Environmental Governance in China, ed. Neil T. Carter and Arthur P.J. Mol, 23-41. Abingdon, UK and New York: Routledge.

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--. 2005. “Environmental Enforcement in China.” In China’s Environment and the Challenge of Sustainable Development, ed. Kristen Day, 102-120. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

--. 2004. The River Runs Black: The Environmental Challenge To China’s Future. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gold, Thomas B. 1986. State and Society in the Taiwan Miracle. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Hsiao, Hsin-Huang Michael. 1999. “Environmental Movements in Taiwan.” In Asia’s Environmental Movements, ed. Yok-shiu F. Lee and Alvin Y. So, 31-54. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Hsu, Shu-Hsiang. 2006. “NIMBY opposition and solid waste incinerator siting in democratizing Taiwan,” The Social Science Journal, Vol. 43, Issue 3 (2006): 453-459.

Kraft, Michael E. and Clary, Bruce B. 1991. “Citizen Participation and the Nimby Syndrome: Public Response to Radioactive Waste Disposal,” The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Jun., 1991): 299-328.

Martens, Susan. 2007. “Public Participation with Chinese Characteristics: Citizen Consumers in China’s Environmental Management.” In Environmental Governance in China, ed. Neil T. Carter and Arthur P.J. Mol, 63-82. Abingdon, UK and New York: Routledge.

McBeath, Gerald A., and Leng, Tse-Kang. 2006. Governance of Biodiversity Conservation in China and Taiwan. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Mol, Arthur P.J., and Carter, Neil T. 2007. “China’s Environmental Governance in Transition.” In Environmental Governance in China, ed. Neil T. Carter and Arthur P.J. Mol, 1-22. Abingdon, UK and New York: Routledge.

Morton, Katherine. 2005. “The emergence of NGOs in China and their transnational linkages: implications for domestic reform.” Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, No. 4: 519-532.

Qiu, Jane. 2008. “China bows to public over chemical plant.” Nature Vol. 451, 10 (January 2009): 117.

Reardon-Anderson, James. 1992. Pollution, politics, and foreign investment in Taiwan: the Lukang rebellion. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Shieh, Shawn. 1998. “Provincial Leadership and the Implementation of Foreign Economic Reforms in Fujian Province.” In Provincial Strategies of Economic Reform in Post-Mao China, ed. Peter T.Y. Cheung, Jae Ho Chung, Chae-ho Chong, Zhimin Lin, 302-335. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Stalley, Phillip, and Yang, Dongning. 2006. “An Emerging Environmental Movement in China?” China Quarterly, Vol. 186: 333-356.

Tang, Shui-Yan and Tang, Ching-Ping. 1998. “Democratization and Environmental Politics in Taiwan.” Asian Survey, Vol. 37, No. 3: 281-294.

Weller, Robert P. 2006. Discovering Nature: Globalization and Environmental Culture in China and Taiwan. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Weller, Robert P. and Hsiao, Hsin-Huang Michael. 1998. “Culture, Gender and Community in Taiwan’s Environmental Movement.” In Environmental Movements in Asia, ed. Arne Kalland and Gerard Persoon, 83-109. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

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Williams, Jack F. 1994. “Paying the Price of Economic Development in Taiwan: Environmental Degradation.” In The Other Taiwan: 1945-Present, ed. Murray A. Rubinstein, 237-256. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

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II. Conference Papers

Hou, Jeffrey. 2000. “Cultural Production of Environmental Activism: Two Cases in Southern Taiwan.” Paper submitted for the Fifth Annual Conference on the History and Culture of Taiwan, UCLA, October 12-15, 2000 <> (accessed November 23, 2009).

Kasahara, Shigehisa. 2004. “The Flying Geese Paradigm: A Critical Study of Its Application to East Asian Regional Development.” Discussion paper no. 169, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) <> (accessed December 28, 2009).

Xiao, Qiang. 2008. “The Rise of Online Public Opinion and Its Political Impact.” Paper submitted for the 6th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference, organized by the Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong <> (accessed December 12, 2009).

III. Selected Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Chen, Yi-Shan, and Chiu, Chieh-Ying. 2008. “The New Xiamen: Friend or Foe?” CommonWealth Magazine no. 409 (November 13, 2008) <> (accessed December 24, 2009).

Cody, Edward. 2007. “Text messaging giving voice to the Chinese,” Washington Post, June 28, 2007 <> (accessed November 25, 2009).

--. 2008. “Thousands of protestors clash with police in S. China,” Washington Post, March 4, 2008 <> (accessed December 26, 2009).

The Economist. 2007. “Mobilised by Mobile,” June 23, 2007 <> (accessed December 23, 2009).

Jacobs, Andrew. 2009. “Chinese Chemical Plant Moves After Outcry,” New York Times, January 14, 2009 <> (accessed December 26, 2009).

Landsberg, Mitchell. 2007. “China gets the (text) message.” Los Angeles Times, June 1, 2007 <> (accessed December 23, 2009).

Lianhe bao (United Daily News). 2007. “The Front Door and the Back Yard.” June 5, 2007. (A translation is available on the Kuomintang website <> (accessed December 23, 2009).

Watts, Jonathan. 2009. “Chinese protestors confront police over incinerator plans in Guangzhou,” The Guardian, November 23, 2009 <> (accessed December 27, 2009).

Wong, Edward. 2008. “In China City, Protestors See Pollution Risks of New Plant,” New York Times, May 6, 2008 <> (accessed December 17, 2009).

IV. Selected Internet Sites and Internet-specific Articles

Ansfield, Jonathan. 2008. “Bad Chemistry,” Newsweek, June 29, 2008 <> (accessed December 23, 2009).

--. 2008a. “Two Letters that Plant Protest,” China Digital Times, March 13, 2008 <> (accessed December 27, 2009).

China Internet Information Center ( 2008. “People vs. Chemical Plant.” January 14, 2008 <> (accessed December 23, 2009).

Kennedy, John. 2007. “Liveblogging from ground zero.” Global Voices Online, June 1, 2007 <> (accessed November 29, 2009).

Li, Li. 2007. “Power to the People,” Beijing Review, December 27, 2007 <> (accessed December 19, 2009).

McElwee, Charlie. 2009. “Xiamen’s Loss is Zhangzhou City’s Gain?” China Environmental Law, January 14, 2009 <> (accessed December 27, 2009).

Ruwitch, John. 2007. “Xiamen mayor says street protests ‘inappropriate’,” Reuters, June 6, 2007 <> (accessed December 2, 2009).

Xie, Liangbing. 2007. “Xiamen PX Incident,” China Newsweek, June 11, 2007. English translation available on the Danwei blog: <> (accessed November 27, 2009).

Zhu, Hongjun. 2007. “Xiamen Calls An Abrupt Halt to the PX Project to Deal with the Public Crisis,” Southern Weekend, May 28, 2007. English translation available on the EastSouthWestNorth website: <> (accessed December 26, 2009).

V. Interviews (in Chinese)

Interview with Xiamen University Professor Yu Zhangbao, Xiamen, December 7, 2009.

Interview with Xiamen University Professor Yang Ling, Xiamen, December 7, 2009.

Interview with anonymous Xiamen resident, Xiamen, December 8, 2009.

Interview with Xiamen University Student Liu, December 8, 2009.

Interview with Xiamen University Professor Shi Ronggang, December 9, 2009.
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Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS) ] 學位論文

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