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Title: 國際訴訟之合意管轄——以排除效果(derogation)之有效性要件為中心
Other Titles: On the Validity of the Derogation Aspect of the Forum Selection Clause
Authors: 黃國昌
Huang, Kuo-Chang
Keywords: 國際訴訟;國際管轄權;合意管轄;排除效果;程序參與之保障;法庭不便利原則;海牙公約;歐盟管轄權規章
international litigation;international jurisdiction;forum selection clause;derogation aspect;day in court;forum non conveniens;Hague Convention;EU regulation
Date: 2006-04
Issue Date: 2016-05-16 16:30:39 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 以國際商務上所為之管轄合意為對象,本文探討國際訴訟合意管轄之排除效果。我國最高法院於近年來陸續作成三個重要之裁判,分別就合意管轄排除效果之「有效性要件」、「否定其效力之例外」以及「合意管轄條款解釋原則」表示見解。以國際訴訟合意管轄之本質特性及理論構成之角度切入,兼由比較法之視野與國際條約之立法趨勢,本文對合意管轄排除效果所涉及之上開三個問題進行分析。本文雖對最高法院承認合意效力之基本立場表示贊同,惟就其裁判對上開問題所持之見解則認有進一步檢討之必要。就一般之有效性要件言,本文認最高法院宜再進一步放寬其要件,以「外國法院有管轄權」取代「外國法院承認合意管轄制度」,並不應附加「我國法院承認該外國判決」之要件。就否定其效力之例外言,則應取向於當事人訴訟權之保障予以設定,而不應混淆內國訴訟與國際訴訟之合意管轄在本質上之不同,創設「以原就被」之例外。就合意條款之解釋言,則應以專屬的合意管轄為解釋原則,使我國法之規範與國際潮流接軌,並增加我國法院判決為外國尊重之機會。
This article purports to examine the derogation aspect of the forum selection clause in the context of international transactions. The Supreme Court in Taiwan recently issued three decisions on this important subject, with particular regard directed to the validity requirements, the exception to its prima facie validity, and the default rule for its interpretation. Based on the nature of the international forum selection clause and its theoretical framework, this article analyzes the soundness of the Supreme Court’s decisions from a comparative perspective and with special reference to relevant international treaties. Although in agreement with the Supreme Court’s upholding the validity of such clause, the article argues that the holdings in all three decisions should be revised. With regard to the validity requirements, as long as the chosen court can assert jurisdiction, it shall not be deemed necessary that such court recognize the validity of the forum selection clause. The requirement that the judgment issued by the chosen court will be recognized by the Taiwanese court shall also be discarded. With regard to the exception, it shall be construed to ensue that parties will not be deprived of their days in court. It is inappropriate to recognize that the court with general jurisdiction can assert jurisdiction irrespective of the forum selection clause appointing another court to exercise jurisdiction exclusively. With regard to the default rule, the forum selection clause shall be interpreted as exclusive unless the parties indicate otherwise. The article argues that in order to allow Taiwanese law keep in step with the international trend and promote the recognition of Taiwanese decisions by other countries, the Supreme Court shall change their positions as advised herein.
Relation: 法學評論, 90, 301-354
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[法學評論 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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