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Title: 從內律到王法:唐代僧人的法律規範
Other Titles: Discussing the Legal Issues of the Monk Community in the T’ang Dynasty
Authors: 陳登武
Chen, Den-Wu
Keywords: 唐代;僧人;地獄;訴訟;寺院財產
T’ang Dynasty;Monk;Hell Trial;Lawsuit;Temple Property
Date: 2009-10
Issue Date: 2016-05-20 15:35:53 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 唐代僧人的法律課題,包括從國家律法對僧人管理的層次,到實務上僧人的刑事犯罪與民事訴訟,以及唐代僧人的集體社會形象等等問題。\r唐代國家律法對僧人有縝密的管理規範,其中包括內律與俗律等來自俗世政權與佛教戒律的規範。初唐統治者對佛教充滿敵意與戒心,甚至曾經利用地獄審判,訴求國家管理佛教政策的落實。玄宗朝發生多起佛教徒謀反案件,加深政府對佛教界的不信任,也促使玄宗大力整頓佛教。唐代僧人活動領域極為廣闊,其中多有與王公貴族往來者,甚至因而捲入政爭者,涉及侵害國家法益者,不乏其人。或有寺院內偶有因爭奪寺財產或寺院主持而引發的刑事犯罪或訴訟糾紛;或因擅長幻術、掌握醫藥知識、或消災解厄,而與庶民階層往來密切,甚至因而造成對社會秩序危害者。\r無論是從司法案件或其他文人隨筆雜著,均可進一步討論唐代僧人的集體社會形象與法律問題。本文即就唐代僧人侵害國家、社會個人法益的犯罪以及圍繞著寺院財產所產生的訴訟糾紛等問題展開討論。
The legal issues of monks during the T’ang Dynasty are concerned with the monks’ management in accord with national regulations, their criminal offenses and common pleas, and the monks’ social image. The T’ang Dynasty had very detailed management regulations in place to govern Buddhist priests, including standards from national laws and Buddhist disciplines. In the early years of the T’ang Dynasty, rulers took a hostile view of Buddhism. They even took advantage of hell trials to impose their national management policy on Buddhist institutions. A number of Buddhist revolts erupted in the period of Xuanzong. These led to a feel-ing of distrust toward the Buddhism community and the reorganization of Buddhism itself. T’ang Dynasty monks were very politically active and associated with aristocrats, and becoming involved in political struggles, thereby hampering national interests. On occasion the monks perpetrated crimes and sought legal address to resolve ownership dis-putes over temple property and temple leadership. Some monks were skilled in imaginary techniques and medical knowledge. This led to the monks being identified as citizens, and, consequently, as offenders against social order. Based on the judicial cases studied by other writers, one can dis-cuss the social images of, and the enactments for, the monk community in the T’ang Dynasty. In particular, this article discusses two such is-sues, including the infringement of national and personal interests, and a lawsuit regarding the disputes over temple property.
Relation: 法學評論, 111, 1-79
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[法學評論 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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