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Title: 論明代宮廷大儺儀式鍾馗戲──兼論鍾馗形象的轉變
Other Titles: The Zhong Kui Nuo Ritual/Drama in the Ming Court-The Transformation of Zhong Kui's Image
Authors: 林智莉
Lin, Chih-Li
Keywords: 鍾馗;儺戲;儺儀;明代;宮廷戲
Zhong Kui;the Nuo drama;the Nuo ritual;the Ming dynasty;Court drama
Date: 2007-12
Issue Date: 2016-05-23 14:28:14 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 一般學者認為明代宮廷無儺,其析論視角均由古儺方相氏系統出發,然而在宋代宮廷大儺「埋祟」儀式中,早已摒棄傳統儺儀而發展出另一套更具娛樂性、戲劇性的儀式,明代的宮廷儺正是延續此一系統而來,宮廷教坊劇如《福祿壽仙官慶會》、《慶豐年五鬼鬧鍾馗》中融入儺儀,在娛樂同時也完成驅儺儀式。其中由周憲王所作《福祿壽仙官慶會》一劇,更是保留許多古儺的儀式與精神。故本文藉由分析《福》劇中的古儺遺意,證實明代以儺戲驅儺的情形,並且提出鍾馗形象經由該儺戲的塑造,發展出有別於兇猛方相氏、落拓文人的新形象,表現出忠誠正直、富貴喜氣的文官樣貌,這雙重意義也使他成為歲末驅邪納福的不二人選。另外,也藉由析論《福》劇的儺儀,探討其隨著習俗改變的部份,提出五祀與送窮在宋明時期逐漸與大儺結合的論點。
It is generally believed that the Ming court stages no Nuo ritual, an analytical perspective derived from Fang Xiang-shi, an ancient Nuo system. However, as early as in Song Nuo theatre, a ritual called mai sui埋祟or “burying the evil spirits” had long been abandoned the traditional Nuo system and developed another set of rituals that is more entertaining and dramatic. What the Nuo theatre in the Ming court inherits is exactly this later development. In order to entertain and to ward off bad influences at the same time, famous plays staged in the Ming court such as 《Three Immortals-- Fortune, Prosperity, and Longevity--Celebrates in Celestial Palaces》(福祿壽仙官慶會)and 《Celebrating an Abundant Harvest the Five Ghosts Tease Zhong Kui》(慶豐年五鬼鬧鍾馗)contain Nuo elements in various ways. Of the two above-mentioned plays, 《Three Immortals Celebrates in Celestial Palace》is written by Zhou Xian-wang. This play preserves many rituals and essences of the ancient Nuo drama. On the grounds of this particular play, the present paper first of all analyzes the Nuo elements embedded in its plot, so as to prove that Nuo drama serves two purposes in the Ming dynasty. Secondly, this paper argues that the image of Zhong Kui, the demon queller, is actually shaped by this particular play. In the play, Zhong Kui is portrayed as a loyal, honest, prosperous and cheerful-looking scholar-official, an image that is very different from that of Fang Xiang-shi, who is traditionally a fierce-looking and defeated literati in Nuo drama. Because of this new image, Zhong Kui has then become the sole candidate in many year-end rituals held to welcome the fortunes and expel the evils. Finally, this paper also investigates various custom changes along the course of time, arguing that rituals such as wu ji (“the five sacrifices”) and sung qong (“sending away poverty”) have gradually been incorporated in Nuo drama during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 8, 97-120
Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature National Chengchi University
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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