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Title: 漢語語音史中的塞音聲母
Other Titles: A Study on the Sound Changes of Stops in Chinese Historical Phonology
Authors: 李存智
Lee, Chun-chih
Keywords: 漢語語音史;歷史語言學;塞音;音變;語言連續性
Chinese phonology;historical linguistics;stops;sound changes;linguistic continuity
Date: 2014-06
Issue Date: 2016-05-25 11:56:55 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文以出土文獻通假字、傳世典籍的聲訓、韻書的又音字、漢語方言的層次異讀為材料,討論漢語語音史上塞音聲母的音韻行為,且及於塞音與塞擦音、擦音、鼻音的關係。具體觀察具有原生特質的雙唇、齒齦(舌尖)、軟顎(舌面後)部位的塞音,探討調音(發音)部位移動、調音(發音)方法與發聲類型改變所造成的塞音音變。瞭解塞音p p b,t t d,k k 在發展與變化的過程中,分化與統一的力量所產生的影響。以中古字母系統來說,本文所討論的塞音音變實際涉及幫、非、端、知、章、見與精、莊各組聲類。\r 傳世文獻、出土文字及漢語方言的層次異讀,反映塞音與擦音、塞擦音頻繁接觸。從漢語方言亦可得知塞音與鼻音,齒齦塞音與邊音亦有密切關係。普遍存在的音韻現象促使學者反思諧聲原則的內涵,何以通行的諧聲原則無法解釋實際存在的諧聲關係?心生書邪船禪聲類轄字,在文獻與方言中存在擦音、塞擦音、塞音的異讀類型,與諧聲原則直接牴觸。本文討論漢語塞音聲母的各種音變,及其在漢語語音史上的意義,認為塞音塞擦化、擦化,與擦音字母的音變相伴相成,此中並且蘊涵音韻演變的普遍規律與語言演變的連續性。時間、地域、類型三位一體是音韻層次的具體內涵,而音讀類型的差異往往蘊涵語音演變的邏輯次序,此即漢語方言的層次異讀可用以解釋歷史音韻演變的認知基礎。實驗語音學的經驗顯示,凡是歷史上發生過的音變,可經由控制某些語言參數讓它在語音實驗室裡重現;社會語言學標舉「用現在解釋過去」也是相同道理,從而驗證語音條件俱足,音變會超越時空,在不同的語言(方言)中出現,體現語言的普遍性與一致性。
A language can be seen as a kind of ruin where linguists re-construct linguistic continuity through horizontal comparison of different dialects. By using the comparative method to pull together written records and modern Chinese dialects, this paper seeks to establish the step-by-step changes of Chinese over time. The changes of stops are one of the most widespread and noticeable phenomena both in the ancient and modern Chinese historical phonology. From the viewpoint of historical linguistics, most of the sound changes are related to place of articulation, manner of articulation, changing of airstream mode. The major sound changes include lenition, displacement, airstream change. Lenition involves sound changes from stops to affricates,from affricates to fricatives, and from fricatives to complete disappearance of sounds. Many examples of lenition can be found both in modern Chinese dialects and the written documents of ancient Chinese. For example, the sound changes of Chinese from stops consonants (bang group,duan group,zhi group, jien group) to affricates (zhang group, jing group, zhuang group), or to fricatives (fei, fu, feng, xin, sheng, shu, xie, chuan, chan, xiao, xia) are mainly categorized as lenition. Displacement involves sound changes from velars to dentals or alveolars, from bilabials to dentals. Airstream change involves sound changes from nasals to orals, from lateral to fricatives or stops. In order to get the whole picture and grasp the generalities, I re-construct the rules of sound change of stops group by using the techniques practiced both in synchronic and diachronic phonology. The comparative analysis of historical dialect materials contains credible evidence and clear explanation showing that ancient Chinese and modern dialects have many variations in common. In this way, a proper understanding of stops sound changes can be established.
Relation: 政大中文學報, 21, 163-212
Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature National Chengchi University
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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