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Title: 塔科夫斯基的《鏡子》:電影語言中的失語、詩語
Other Titles: Tarkovsky’s The Mirror: The Reticent and the Poetic Language
Authors: 熊宗慧
Hsiung, Tsung-huei
Keywords: 安德烈‧塔可夫斯基;阿爾謝尼‧塔可夫斯基;鏡子;失語;詩語
Andrey Tarkovsky;Arseny Tarkovsky;the Mirror;Muteness;Poetic Language
Date: 2012-01
Issue Date: 2016-05-31 15:42:51 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 塔可夫斯基一直認為電影和詩歌有著相似的內在邏輯,而他對這種邏輯自小熟捻,因為其父阿爾謝尼‧塔可夫斯基(Арсений Тарковский, 1907-1989)就是一位詩人,導演在耳濡目染的情況下掌握了詩的語言,並帶入自己的電影中。在《鏡子》中塔可夫斯基總共放入了四首父親的詩歌,而且皆由詩人親自吟誦,這些詩歌非僅是點綴作用,詩歌朗誦本身就是電影語言的一部份,發揮著形塑童年故鄉風景,還有捕捉回憶情感的作用;此外還有另一項功能,即父親的聲音適切地替代了陷入「失語」狀態的主角傳達內心情感,那情感如此溫柔動人,像是在所愛之人的耳邊絮語,傾訴著塔可夫斯基一直以來想說卻說不出口的話,那是對母親、父親、前妻、孩子等等所有自己愛過又傷害過的人的悔恨和告白。《鏡子》(Зеркало, 1974)是俄國導演安德烈‧塔可夫斯基(Андрей Тарковский, 1932-1986)自傳性色彩最濃厚的作品,導演以自身成長經驗為經緯,勾勒出童年回憶的輓歌。影片中回憶與現實相互對映,幻想如流動的意識穿梭其中,時空體在此重疊交錯。《鏡子》處理的主題是回憶的情感,情感透過影像傳達,片中回憶的影像極為清晰,充滿象徵寓意與詩意,填補了人物話語和話語之間的大片空白,據此產生無以名狀的惆悵與意在言外的無盡遐想。 《鏡子》中話語空白的重要性不僅在美學上,同時亦在心理層面上,電影以一位口吃患者在接受治療後,終於流暢講出「我能說話了」的紀錄影片作為片頭,即暗示影片人物,例如男主角阿列克謝伊所面臨的生活上的「失語」和「不語」的困擾(導演本身亦同),即無法以言語溝通,必須尋找媒介以為出口──紀錄片中患者將壓力轉移到雙手後方始能正常說話;電影主角阿列克謝伊則透過回憶過去解決當下問題;塔可夫斯基則是用電影創作建構出屬於自己的語言。
The Mirror is the most autobiographical work by the distinguished Russian movie director Andrey Tarkovsky. He based the movie on his growing up experiences sketched out as an elegy of childhood memory. In the film, the memory and the reality are mapped onto each other, and the fantasy, as flowing consciousness, is streaming in there, which made the time and the space overlap. Andrey Tarkovsky attempts to deal with “the feelings of the memory,” the abstract emotions conveyed through the visual images, and the images are clear and full of symbolic as well as poetic meanings, which filled the large gaps between the words left unsaid by the characters, thus creating a melancholy mood, which words cannot express. The importance of the hiatus between the words does not only function in the aesthetic sense, but also on the psychological level. The beginning of The Mirror is a documentary film, which is about a stuttering patient. After treatment he was able to say with fluency, "I can speak," implying that the leading character Alexei in the film (and the director Tarkovsky as well) faces the same problem – psychological “muteness” and “mutism,” that is why he is trying to find a medium as an exit for expressing the feelings. In the documentary, the patient successfully transferred his pressure to the hands and spoke out one sentence smoothly; Alexei in the film is trying to solve the present problems through memories of the past; Tarkovsky thus is using the camera lens to construct his own cinematic language. In The Mirror, Andrey includes four of his father's poems, and all the poems are recited by the poet Arseny Tarkovsky himself. These poems are not only playing a decorative role; poetry reciting itself is a part of the film’s language, helping shape the childhood memory and home landscapes, as well as capturing the “feelings of the memory.” In addition, the poetry reading functions by appropriately conveying the inner feelings of the protagonist in the film, which captures the psychological “reticent” and “taciturn” states, feelings that are so gentle and moving, as if whispering in the ear about love, uttering the words that the protagonist for a long time did not say—the repentance and confession to his mother and father, his wife and child, and all the people that he has loved and hurt.
Relation: 俄語學報,19,111-127
Journal of Russian Philology
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[俄語學報 ] 期刊論文

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