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Title: 美孚油公司與中國政府的商務交涉 (1870- 1933)
Other Titles: Standard Oil Company’s Trade Negotiation with China, 1870-1930
Authors: 吳翎君
Wu, Lin-chun
Keywords: 美孚油公司;標準石油公司;中美經濟關係;美國在華企業;中美外交關係
Standard Oil;petroleum trade;Sino-U. S. economic relations;American business in China;Sino-American relations
Date: 2000-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 11:54:31 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 1870年美國煤油鉅子老洛克菲勒創辦美孚油公司(American Standard Oil Co.),在短短數年內橫掃美國國內市場,並形成壟斷美國石油工業的托拉斯組織;而早在1863年老洛克菲勒剛起步創建石油工業時就已將市場伸向太平洋彼岸的中國,當時的煤油產品主要是做為家庭點燈之燃料。從1876年開始到1920年代,石油產品(以煤油為主)已在美國輸華貨物量中居領先地位,而主要的獲利者即為美孚油公司。\r 美孚油公司在中國的早期貿易伴隨著美國對華政策而拓展,從一開始進入中國市場,它便是條約體系(Treaty System)的受惠者,在此一基礎下,美孚油公司在中國主要通商口岸建立油池、油棧、儲存煤油,而懸掛外國國旗的油輪,可以任意航行中國內河。\r 在中國拓展商務過程中,美孚油公司與中國政府時生爭議,有些是對條約解釋的不同,例如經理處的設立、油棧油池碼頭之設置、土地之取得,究竟是否為中外條約明文所允。交涉中最為頻繁的是稅務糾紛,如海關稅捐、落地稅、煤油捐、釐金,以及地方政府的公益捐等等。美孚油公司、美駐京公使以及中國政府,均對條約解釋各自表述。上述議題具體反映中美經濟關係史的重要課題,以及企業與外交關係的複雜性,此即本文關注的焦點
Formed In 1870, Standard Oil Company grew quickly, and became a monopolized trust company in American petroleum market. John D. Rockefeller, the company founder, initially found the potential power of China market and pushed oil trade entering China in 1860s. By that time, petroleum products mainly used as a merchant of kerosene, a product whose chief value was household illumination. From 1876 to the 1920s, petroleum products dominated American exports to China, the most profitable Company was Standard Oil. The pioneering of Standard Oil in China was accompanied with American foreign Policy. From 1842, Standard Oil took advantages of treaty system to build oil depot and refinery. Later, due to Teintsin treaty, foreign boat could sail unboundedly to China’s inland rivers, the result was Standard Oil expanded its sales network quickly. In the development of trade market occurred many dispute, some originated from the different explanation of Treaty system, for example, according to the definition of treaties whether or not to build agents system, oil depot and to own the land. There are so many controversial tax cases in the instance of customs revenue, local revenue, charity donation and Likin. The negotiation between mutual Legation reflected one complex truth: the economic impulse of Standard oil Co. in China corresponded with foreign policy, it is the important topics in the early Sino-U.S. economic relations.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 17, 229-261
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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