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Title: 越戰故事中未完結的篇章:美國「戰俘」及「失蹤美軍」問題之探討
Other Titles: An Unfinished Chapter of the Vietnam War Story: A Study on the Issue of American POWs and MIA
Authors: 魏良才
Wei, Liang-tsai
Keywords: 美國與越戰;戰俘與失蹤美軍;救援戰俘/失蹤美軍組織;「歸鄉行動」;「突襲山西」;「葛瑞茲鬧劇」
U. S. and Vietnam War;POWs/MIA;POWs/MIA rescue organizations;“Operation Homecoming”;“Son Tay RAID”;“Gritz Fiasco”
Date: 2000-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 11:54:39 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 越戰是美國歷史上歷史做久、花費最大也最具有爭議性的戰爭。就像美國人所參與的歷次戰爭一樣,美國的軍人在遙遠的中南半島上捐軀、被俘或失蹤。拿越戰與美國所參與的歷次戰爭比較,我們可以發現越戰有兩個特點:首先,自越戰歸來的退伍軍人不僅無法像以前的退伍軍人一樣享受英雄似的歡迎,反而在重新融入社會的復員過程中備受歧視與欺凌。美國的社會大眾將對越戰的不滿轉化為對越戰退伍軍人的敵視,對奉命馳騁沙場的軍人極不公平。其後,情況雖有改善,而越戰退伍軍人對國家的犧牲奉獻也逐漸受到肯定;但畢竟是遲來的正義,對越戰退伍軍人的傷害已經造成。其次,與以往的戰爭相比,在越戰中被俘或失蹤的美軍實在並不太多;但是他們所衍生的問題卻對美國的社會造成前所未有的衝擊。究其原因,主要是由於政客、投機者以及影劇界的炒作。美軍戰俘在1973年獲釋歸鄉之後,失蹤美軍的問題至今未能解決。尼克森政府炒作失蹤美軍問題的心態固然可議,但其後的歷任政府未能客觀剖析問題,協助家屬面對現實,也有其不可推卸的責任。事實上,越戰失蹤美軍的問題,就像以往任何一次戰爭一樣,根本就是一個無解的問題。中南半島天候環境的特殊以及美軍失蹤時的情況,使失蹤者遺骸的尋找更加不易。越戰結束至今已近四分之ㄧ世紀,仍有成千的美國軍人的魂魄在遙遠的中南半島上漂泊,他們只能存活在親人恆久的記憶與懷念中。越戰失蹤美軍問題恐怕也將永遠成為越戰故事中一個無法完結的篇章。
For the Americans, Vietnam War, the longest in their history, ended tragically. Never before in American history and a regional and limited war cost the United States so much in both material and human resources. There is one small segment of the American populace which suffered most in the Vietnam War, the American veterans, particularly those classified as “prisoners of war, POW” and “missing in action, MIA.”\r Compared with previous wars hat the United States had participated, the number of American POWs and MIA in the Vietnam War was rather small. However, the issue of POWs and MIA, exploited by politicians, mass media, adventurers and the Hollywood, became confusing and attention-attracting, particularly so after the “Operation Homecoming” in 1973 during which 591 American prisoners were released by North Vietnamese in exchange for more than 26,500 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong prisoners. As of 1999 there were more than 2,000 American soldiers of the Vietnam War still unaccounted for. Their bodies had never been found and nobody knew whether they were dead or still alive. They will and probably only live in the heart of their loved ones.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 17, 289-319
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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