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Title: 冷戰時期德美外交關係與第二次柏林危機(1956—1961)
Other Titles: The German-American Relationship and the Second Berlin Crisis, 1956-1961
Authors: 陳郴
Chen, Chern
Keywords: 柏林危機;冷戰;柏林最後通牒;柏林圍牆;東西方關係;德國問題;柏林問題;歐洲安全
Berlin crisis;Cold War;Berlin ultimatum;Berlin wall;East-West Relations;German issue;Berlin problem;European security
Date: 2000-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 11:54:43 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 發生於1958年柏林的危機,再度使柏林成為東西冷戰中的衝突地帶,這事距離「柏林封鎖」的時間剛好十年。被視為冷戰時期重大事件的「第二次柏林危機」隨著蘇聯總理赫魯雪夫 (Nikita S. Khurshchev) 於同年11月底對英、美、法三國發出所謂「柏林最後通牒」(Berlin-Ultimatum) 而揭開序幕,不僅將東西方衝突的焦點再度帶到歐洲雙方對峙的前線,更引起東西雙方陣營間複雜的外交折衝。日內瓦、大衛營、巴黎以及維也納會議標示著美、蘇在危機期間尋求談判解決問題的各個階段,由於雙方對於德國與柏林問題的立場歧異,談判策略歸趨失敗,最後導致柏林圍牆的建立,將原本緊繃的東西方關係帶至最高潮。 在1956至1961年冷戰期間,德國問題以及柏林問題一直是歐洲安全中最重要的課題,而德國作為美國盟邦在其遏阻共產勢力擴張戰略上,扮演著重要角色。然而因著美國戰略思維與外交路線的轉變,持續四年之久的第二次柏林危機,卻使得德美關係面臨第二次世界大戰結束後最現實的考驗,更也成為影響德國與美國外交關係變化的轉折點。
Tension over Berlin in 1958, ten years after “Berlin blockade,” made Berlin an area of conflict again during the Cold War. The deliverance of the Berlin-ultimatum by Soviet secretary-general Nikita S. Khurshchev to the three main Western powers in November of the same year was a prologue to the significant event of the Cold War: the second Berlin crisis. The Berlin-ultimatum not only brought East-West conflict into focus on the frontline in Europe, but also caused complicated reactions in the diplomacy of the two super powers. Geneva, Camp David, Paris and Vienna: each represented a stage in the search for a negotiated resolution to the problems between the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis. Owing to the contradictory positions of the two on German issue, the strategy of negotiations failed, the Berlin Wall was built. Therefore, the strained situation in East-West relations reached a climax. The German issue and the Berlin problem between 1956 and 1961 were the most important topics for European security during the Cold War. Germany, as an ally of the United States, played an important role in strategies for blocking communist expansion. However, the second Berlin crisis brought about a tremendous change in U. S. strategic thinking and diplomatic policy. Therefore, the change not only became a turning point in the relationship between Germany and the United States, but also provided a testy ground for the diplomatic relationship between these two countries after World War II.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 17, 321-348
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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