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Title: 從自治到依附:赫梅利尼茨基與烏克蘭哥薩克的轉變
Other Titles: From Autonomous To Dependence:Khmel’nytskyi and the Ukrainian Cossacks at the Turning Point
Authors: 周雪舫
Chou, Hsien-fang
Keywords: 赫梅利尼茨基;烏克蘭哥薩克;莫斯科;波蘭;茲博羅夫條約;佩列亞斯拉夫條約
Khmel’nytskyi;the Ukrainian Cossacks;Muscovy;Poland;the Treaty of Zobrov;the Treaty of Pereiaslav
Date: 2002-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 11:55:49 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 「烏克蘭哥薩克」形成於十五世紀末的德聶伯河下游處,為波蘭轄區。由於波蘭實行農奴制度與「東儀天主教會」,加上常刪減註冊哥薩克人數,終於在1648年爆發由赫梅利尼茨基領導的暴動,農民普遍加入,這與之前哥薩克多半為爭取自己的權利而戰的情況不同。1649年茲博羅夫條約簽訂後,烏克蘭哥薩克國於焉誕生,享有徵稅、司法、外交、軍事與自選首領海特曼的權利。由於波蘭仍是個強勁對手,烏克蘭哥薩克在內憂外患的狀況下,亟須尋找外援以維護自治。赫梅利尼茨基最後選擇民族、宗教、語言相似的莫斯科,於1654年雙方簽訂佩列亞斯拉夫條約,接受莫斯科的保護。哥薩克仍保留自選海特曼與司法、外交權(波蘭、土耳其除外),但是莫斯科有駐軍、徵稅權。烏克蘭哥薩克不再受波蘭的威脅,卻因莫斯科逐漸干涉其內政而失去自治權。
‘The Ukrainian Cossacks’ took shape in the second half 15th , who lived in the lower Dnieper and were dominated by Poland. They resisted to be enslaved by serfdom, to join the Uniate Church and to reduce the number of the registered Cossacks by Poland. The Khmel’nytskyi Uprising was broken in 1648. It is different from the Cossacks to strive for privileges for themselves before. After the Treaty of Zborov in 1649, Khmel’nytskyi estalished the Cossack State. It possessed the privileges: to collect taxes; the Hetman to be chosen by Cossacks; to have own judicial court; to receive envoys freely. Ploand was still a strong power , the Cossack State must seek for foreign aid to preserve its autonomous. Khmel’nytskyi selected Muscovy, because they were the same nation, religion and language. They signed the Treaty of Pereiaslav in 1654. The Cossacks reserved to elect the Hetman by themselves; to have own judicial court; to freely receive envoys except for Poland and Turkey. Muscovy obtained to station troops on the Ukrainian’s frontiers and to collect taxes. The Ukrainian Cossacks was not an autonomy, it gradually depended on Muscovy.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 19, 407-428
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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