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Title: 中國之前途:集權乎?分權乎?-民國初期張君勱與張東蓀的「聯邦論」
Other Titles: China's Future;Centralization or Decentralization?: An Analysis of the Argument about Federal System of Zhang Junmai and Zhang Dongsun in Early Republican China
Authors: 原正人
Masato, Hara
Keywords: 研究系;張君勱;張東蓀;聯邦論;梁啟超
the Research Clique (Yanjiuxi);Carsun Chang (Zhang Junmai);Zhang Dongsun;federal system;Liang Qichao
Date: 2003-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 11:56:13 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本論文以「研究系」主要成員張君勱與張東蓀為例,分析民國初期他們對「聯邦制」的看法來考察「作為思想集團的研究系」形成過程。1910年代後半,張東蓀常常主張「聯邦論」。根據他的意見,地方自治讓政治權力多元化,而且防止專制與軍閥統治。對此張君勱反對這主張,認為地方只是個「行政區」,他主張中央政府指導地方的統治體制。但是張君勱經過1913年的德國留學及1918年底的歐洲視察,慢慢改變了對聯邦制的評價。張東蓀基本上繼續主張聯邦論。1920年兩者聯名發表的〈中國之前途:德國乎?俄國乎?〉裡,他們對聯邦論的時差不多一致,即「贊成導入聯邦制」。這一致的理由可以說是因為政治立場與海外經驗、及梁啟超對他們的影響等因素造成。筆者認為,從「國家構想的一致」這角度來看,他們的意見一致的1920年7月就是研究系思想形成過程上的階段。可是,諷刺的是,他們思想上的形成卻是在他們政治生命已經結束了之後。
The purpose of this thesis is, through a series of arguments about a federal system by Carsun Chang (Zhang Junmai, 1887–1969) and Zhang Dongsun (1886–1973) who were two of core members of the Research Clique (Yanjiuxi), to analyze a formation of its thought as a group. In second half of 1910's, Zhang Dongsun often contended federal system both in theory and practice. Zhang insisted local autonomy is the only way to protect autocracy or rule by warlord. But Carsun Chang objected to Zhang Dongsun's opinion, asserted that a local government is merely an administrative distinct which should be persistently guided by the central government. However, Carsun Chang gradually changed the evaluation to federal system, via study in Germany from 1913 and inspection around Europe from 1918. Meanwhile, Zhang Dongsun continued to insist on federal system. Then, they published a series of letters called ”China's future: Germany or Russia?” in June 1920, where their opinions about federal system were almost coincided in theory and practice. This is because of the difference of their political standpoint, overseas experience, and influence from Liang Qichao. Author concluded that, June 1920 is a date when their opinion about plans of China agreed, and simultaneously, when their opinion about federal system almost coincided is certainly a phase of formation of the Research Clique's thought as a group, and this date, at the same time, ironically, is after their political career was broken off.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 20, 281 - 308
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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