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Title: 戰爭與啟蒙:「歐戰」對中國的啟示
Authors: 丘為君
Chiu, Eugene W.
Keywords: 現代性;啟蒙;轉型期中國;東方雜誌;杜亞泉;歐戰;軍國主義;青島
Modernity;Enlightenment;Transitional Era of China;Dongfang Zazhi (East Magazine);Du Yaquan;Militarism;Qingdao
Date: 2005-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 14:33:19 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 當「歐戰」爆發後,雖然中國並未派軍直接參戰,但歐洲戰事的發展,在中國新興媒體如報紙與雜誌等連續而大量的報導下,成了這個亞洲新共和國大眾知識生活中的主要議題;歐洲新聞,由以往的配角躍升為新聞版面的主角。拜這場長達四年(1914-1919)之久的「歐戰」大劇之賜,中國知識界透過傳播媒體的力量,對西方文明產生了前所未有的親近。「歐戰」對中國至少有四種啟示:第一,近代中國主要是從「文本」(text)的意義上體驗了「歐戰」。從1914年7月28日「歐戰」爆發至1918年11月11日大戰終了整整四個年頭裡,中國經歷了一次獨特但深遠的經驗在「文本」的意義上,經歷了第一次世界大戰洗禮。「文本化」的「歐戰」,使中國知識界對「歐戰」的內涵有一個比較超然的理解,對西方文明的內涵(包括正面與負面)有較深刻的認識。第二,日本大隈重信(1838-1922)內閣在第一次世界大戰期間與英國聯手發動的山東戰役,使中國的「歐戰」經驗,不僅止於虛擬(virtual)的「文本」上經歷,也在真實(real)的情境裡體驗到砲火的滋味。青島的淪陷與接下來的「二十一條」,使中國與「歐戰」在負面的意義上連接起來,並啟動了影響近代中國深遠的「五四學生運動」。第三,「歐戰」使中國知識界對西方產生一種「啟蒙式」的親近。透過傳播媒體圖文並茂的解說,中國知識界第一次從「啟蒙」的意義上,深刻地見識到西方「富國強兵」的內涵與真相。近代中國的「啟蒙」經驗,由先前的「理論導向」,轉為「傳播導向」。第四,「歐戰」使中國知識份子對西方文明由敬畏轉為懷疑,由樂觀轉為悲觀。隨著有關戰爭殘暴本質與傷亡人數增加的報導持續地被揭露,西方「文明」與「野蠻」共存的現象,成了中國知識份子的困惑。
Breaking out at the beginning of 20th century, the “Great War” of Europe became the First World War; it started from an area military conflict of the Balkan Peninsula to a pan-Europe war. From a sole area military alliance to the world-wide competition of Great Powers, the WWI involved a population of 854,000,000 among the nations participated the war, namely, half of the world population. Known as the “Great War” in Europe, this war was called by Chinese intellectuals as the “European War” (Ouzhan 歐戰). Literally, Ouzhan, or the “European War”, meant a war which had nothing to do with China. Indeed. Chinese government did take an armed neutrality policy toward the “Great War” after it broke out for a period of time. Nevertheless, Chinese armed neutrality policy did not prevent her from the attacks of Western guns. After its eruption in Europe, “Great War” showed itself in China proper in a particular way: China’s Qingdao of Shandong province, which was the military headquarter of Imperial Germany in Asia, became an extended battle field of the “Great War” starting from the bombard of English-Japanese alliance against Germany. China was therefore involved into the WWI in a passive, and perhaps innocent, way. This study has no intention to discuss in a large scale the attitudes of Chinese government toward the “Great War.” Neither, it has any ambition to explore the impact of the WWI over early Republican China. It will, however, examine the Chinese WWI experiences from the following perspective: First, in what sense did the “Great War” endow its impact on modern China’s “Enlightenment Movement”? Second, what was the nature of this “Enlightenment impact” out of the WWI? Was it a positive or negative one? Or, was it both? Third, in a more narrow sense, what was the direct impact of the WWI on the Chinese intellectual trends of the “May Fourth” period? Mainly depending on the East Magazine (dongfang zazhi 東方雜誌), one of the everlasting, and most influential as well, non-official magazine in Republican China, this study came to the following major findings: First, in contrast to the previous “elite enlightenment”, a top-down development experience, typified by the late Q’ing intellectual leader Liang Qichao, the East Magazine through its extensive and intensive reporting of the progress of “Great War” as well the daily life of the West, brought about a so-called “popular enlightenment”, a bottom-up experience. Second, early Republican China on the whole experienced the WWI through “text” instead of “bullet”, namely, Chinese came to know the “Great War” through the new media such as magazines and newspaper instead of direct participation of the war. Third, as an agent of “popular enlightenment” in modern China, the East Magazine reported and commented the developments and its significances of the WWI. More importantly, by introducing the daily practices of Western militarism and the content of Western materialism, the East Magazine with its circulation of 15,000 copies during its high peak, successfully brought the secrets of Western “Wealth and Power” to the face of Chinese intellectuals, and maybe populace as well.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 23, 91-146
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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