Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/97326


Title: 戰爭與廣播:東亞的電波戰爭
Other Titles: Radio and War in East Asia
Authors: 川島真
Kawashima, Shin
Keywords: 廣播的時代;帝國與廣播;媒體與動員;電波戰爭;政治即生活
radio times;empire and radio;political mobilization trough radio;broadcasting war;life with politicization trough radio
Date: 2006-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 14:45:23 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 1920-60年代是廣播的時代。1920年代出現的廣播,一方面超越空間,超越老若男女、教育程度(識字程度)和社會上的階層等之有越境性媒體,但另一方面推動語言的標準化(標準國語) 、音樂和戲劇等文化的規格化等之有規劃性的媒體。社會生活來說,廣播與生活關係密切的新興娛樂,同時(也因為與生活密切相關)一直被利用來達成權力者的社會動員。日本帝國也很積極地利用這新媒體的功能,在「日本帝國」+「滿洲帝國」+「中華民國(汪精衛政權)」的「大東亞共榮圈」之下,廣播就是把「共榮圈」假想實現化的重要工具。日本帝國建立在共榮圈,建立廣播的的網絡,在各地的廣播台之間推行以東京為主(特別是新聞和時報)的交換節目網。在滿洲展開多語言的跟「五族協和」等政治口號符合之廣播政策,還是給來滿洲的移民的日本人提供「日本本地的風味」,培養「共榮圈」的一體感。在東亞,除了日本以外,重慶政府和共產黨等政治主體(包括美國、蘇聯)都重視廣播的功能, 進行互相動員、宣傳和清音等政治工作,因此在亞洲出現電波戰爭的狀況。然而,廣播媒體在「帝國」的構成員中以mass的角色是否能動員成功,不無疑問。確實,在滿洲國開始雙重播放,用各式各樣的語言來廣播,在滿洲文化上也做了各式各樣的嘗試。但這樣的廣播被認為其「帝國性」的消費者多半是日本本土以及外地的日本人,頂多加上當地極少數會說日語的人來作為傳播對象。這是做一些較廣大區域的研究就可以瞭解的。但廣播毋寧是為帝國範圍擴張而在外的日本人建立與日本本土的聯繫及橫向的合作,發展出作為可以想像多元性質、多民族「帝國」的裝置來發揮其機能,另外廣播在日本人及會說日語的人在「政治即生活」上,可以認為達到了很大的意義;但反過來說,也留下了一些可供思考的地方。最後,為了日本人想像的「日本帝國」「共榮圈」,才有了廣播,在這一層意義之下,日本的廣播應該沒有滲透到中國人的生活。但「廣播明星」李香蘭(山口淑子)也很受到中國人的歡迎,並不能說與中國人的生活空間完全沒有交集。然而,從李香蘭在戰後日本的新活動來看,我們可以發現1945年之後歷史並未結束。從「帝國與廣播」這一個面向,脫帝國化、脫殖民地化會是今後研究的重要課題。
It was “radio times” in 1920-60’s. Radio was an epoch-making, trans-boundary media. Broadcasting reached people’s lives beyond boundaries with geopolitical generation, gender, educated level and classes. But, on the other hand, broadcasting created new cultural standards and norms in people’s lives, for example, to strengthen the standard of national language. For ordinary life, radio was certainly new entertainment device. This outstanding device which could penetrate into people’s ordinary lives, interested authorities so much. Japan Empire also was interested in its utility and efficiency for propaganda. Japan Empire built radio facilities and networks, broadcasted multi-language/cultural programs and created empire images for listeners. These programs were made under the initiative of the center of the Empire, Tokyo, especially on news. In Manchuria, because Manchu-kuo was imagined a huge, multi-ethnic state under Japan Empire, broadcasting was recognized important device to create the multi-ethnic image, to reach and integrate the peoples in the peripheries, to make linkage between Manchuria and Japan proper, and to imagine the expanding Empire. Except for Japan, China (KMT, CCP) and some political missions in China (including OSS, SSU of US, and USSR) also did their propaganda though radio. So we can see “broadcasting war” in East Asia at that time. But from point of extent with efficiency, Manchu-kuo didn’t achieve its aids, because in fact the radio was accept only to Japanese community in Manchuria, and could not touch Chinese and other ethnic group’s ordinary lives. As famous radio star Li Xianglan (Yoshiko Yamaguchi) would keep to be a media star after WWII, we can see continuity on broadcasting beyond 1945.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 25, 37-70
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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