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Title: 地緣衝突的血緣化解?基隆中元祭與姓氏輪值主普制
Other Titles: Kinship Resolution to Replace Regional Conflicts?The Ghost Festival in Keelung and the Surname Rotation System
Authors: 吳蕙芳
Wu, Huey-fang
Keywords: 基隆中元祭;姓氏輪值主普制;漳泉械鬥;主普;主會;主醮;主壇;宗親組織
Ghost Festival in Keelung;surname rotation system;the armed conflicts between the settlers from Zhanghou and Quanzhou;Zhu-pu;Zhu-hui;Zhu-jiao;Zhu-tan;clan organization
Date: 2009-05
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 15:07:13 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 基隆中元祭的最大特色在姓氏輪值主普制,對於此制源起,一般認為是始於咸豐年間甚為嚴重的漳泉械鬥衝突,後經地方士紳協調,主張以「賽陣頭」(普度賽會)方式代替「打破頭」(械鬥血拼)場景,即經由血緣關係的宗親組織輪流負責中元普度活動,化解因地緣衝突形成的族群對立。惟此一說法的史料來源以往鮮為人關注,立論基礎亦乏人重視,至於輪值主普各姓在當時的實力狀況與能力表現更少有確切釐清者;同時,清治與日治時期的基隆中元祭非僅主普一柱,而另有主會、主醮、主壇之分布,究竟這四大柱是如何進行與運作的?隱身其後的人際網絡是如何關連糾葛的?這些問題昔日或有若干討論,然窺諸內容仍值得再深入探究。而研究結果顯示:咸豐5年的姓氏輪值主普制確因漳泉械鬥事促成,然咸豐年間基隆的漳泉械鬥應不止一次,再加上福建小刀會動亂引發基隆戰事,使當地死傷者甚多,故透過輪值主普十一姓依序負責每年超度亡魂之事,令生者得安心度日。此制發展到日治時期已演變成逐年競賽局面,輪值主普十一姓在主普壇、遊行陣頭、祭祀牲豚等方面彼此互爭,而為集結同姓宗族力量,輪值主普各姓均大量動員鄰近地區族人,此實促成了新鄉(金雞貂石區)的在地認同,反淡化以往對原鄉(漳州、泉州)的地域觀念。同時,輪值主普十一姓外的其它姓氏亦逐漸興起,且不落人後地展現實力,與輪值主普十一姓互相競賽,至戰後終於爭取到輪值主普機會,發展成今日基隆共有十五姓輪值主普之局面。
The surname rotation system is the most significant feature of the Ghost Festival in Keelung. Regarding its origin, the consensus belief explains that because of the feuds between the settles from Zhangzhou and Quanzhou in the Xiangfeng era were very serious that local gentry proposed the surname rotation system, rotated the duty of running the festival among the clan organizations based on consanguinity, to resolve the confrontation rooted on regional feuds; they would compete in grand parades instead of fighting. In the past, both the sources of relevant historical documents and supporting arguments of this theory were not well attended and valued; status of the strength and presence of competence of on-duty clan organizations at that time were not clearly rectified; meanwhile, this festival activities during the Qing Dynasty and Japanese colonial rule were not only limited to Zhu-pu (Main Salvation, 主普), there were also Zhu-hui ( Main Assembly, 主會), Zhu-jiao (Main Ritual, 主醮) and Zhu-tan (Main Alter, 主壇). How did these four parts proceed and operate? How did the human connections intermingled behind the scenes? Though these issues have been discussed in the past, upon further examination, they deserve further study. This research proves that the surname rotation system started in the 5th year of Xianfen was indeed rooted on the feuds between the settlers from Zhangzhou and Quanzhou, but the feuds should occur more than one time during the Xianfeng era. And the Small Sword Society rebellion in Fujian triggered fighting in Keelung. These incidents caused heavy casualties in Keelung, therefore, local gentry used the surname rotation system to release souls from purgatory, so the people could live in ease. During Taiwan’s Colonial period, this festival transformed to an annual event of competition of main salvation alter, lantern-decorated vehicle in parade and live stock sacrifice among various clan organizations. In order to fully explore its strength, every clan organization mobilized its members in the region, and this promoted the new communal (which include Jinbaoli, Keelung, San Diego, Shrding) attachment and faded native place attachment (Zhangzhou, Quanzhou). In the meantime, clan organizations not included in the surname rotation system rose and aggressively developed their strength to compete with the eleven-clan organizations in the system; the other four of them managed to secure the opportunity to join the surname rotation system after World War II. Therefore, there are fifteen clan organizations in the surname rotation system today.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 31, 51-96
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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