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Title: 海軍武嚇、上海中立化與合作政策:江浙戰爭期間列強對華舉措分析
Other Titles: Naval Demonstrations, Shanghai Neutralization and Cooperation Policy: An Analysis of the Powers’ Responses to the Kiangsu-Chekiang War
Authors: 應俊豪
Ying, Chun-hao
Keywords: 江浙戰爭;砲艦外交;上海中立化;華盛頓會議體制;合作政策
Kiangsu-Chekiang War;Gunboat Diplomacy;Shanghai Neutralization;Washington Conference System;Cooperation Policy
Date: 2011-11
Issue Date: 2016-06-02 15:59:59 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 1924年的江浙戰爭為第二次直奉戰爭的前哨戰,因戰場位置毗鄰上海租界,故引起列強極大關注。為了避免戰事波及上海,列強基本上採取兩種手段來限制戰事發展:一是執行海軍武嚇行動,另一則是推動上海中立化。海軍武嚇行動與區域中立化方案,是近代以來列強因應中國亂局時慣常使用模式。本文擬透過江浙戰爭期間列強採取的海軍武嚇行動以及上海中立化問題,來分析華盛頓會議後列強對華合作政策決策的實際運作情況。\r 首先,由江浙戰爭期間列強海軍武嚇行動的運作情況與決策經過,可以發現看似強勢的砲艦外交,受到華會體系影響與美國的主導下,其實隱含著避免使用武力介入中國內政事務的大前提。此類「海軍在場」的溫和型砲艦外交模式,乃不戰而屈人之兵,透過列強海軍合作,以武力為恫嚇手段,確保外人在華利益。 其次,列強駐華使領與海軍當局所提的上海附近劃為中立區方案,雖然不合條約規定,但因上海特殊的地理位置與交通特性,列強可以輕易集結海軍,並以強大武力為後盾,造成實質的中立化。\r 最後,從江浙戰爭期間美、英、日三國的態度,也可以清楚看到列強彼此之間各自的盤算。自華會以降,美國政府一再重申不介入中國內戰、尊重中國主權的立場,並試圖將美國對華政策,藉由列強協調合作的途徑,進一步擴大為各國共識。英、日兩國雖然表面上不願抵觸美國,凡事協調、嚴守中立,然而卻各有考量。英國嚴守中立,乃因樂見直系武力統一政策落實,有助英國在華利益進一步的擴大。至於日本,則只緊抓東北地區,對長江流域等非日本特殊利益的地區,自然也願與英美協調一致,以免猜忌。因此,由江浙戰爭列強對華舉措來看,華會體制所確立的合作政策,雖然在美國力挺以及英日顧慮美國態度下,尚能維持表面上的合作,然而如深入分析箇中利害關係,實際上仍是各唱各的調。
Associate Professor, Institute of Oceanic Culture, NTOU Due to the battle field of the Kiangsu-Chekiang War (K-C War) surrounding the Shanghai Settlement, the war caused the Powers great concern and anxiety. They used two methods to restrain gunfire: one method was to carry out naval demonstrations, and the other was to neutralize Shanghai. These were the usual ways that the Powers had used to deal with civil wars in China since the mid-19th century. By examining the Powers’ strategies during the K-C War, this paper will analyze the real situation of cooperation policies under the Washington Conference System in China. Firstly, naval demonstrations, though seemingly strong, were actually a kind of moderate gunboat diplomacy. Instead of intervening in China’s civil war by force, the demonstrations acted as a scare tactic, showing a united front of naval strength to intimidate the Chinese and protect foreigners. Secondly, the Shanghai neutralization plan, put forward by the Powers, was an exhibition of military strength, not a dispute of treaties or international principles. Finally, cooperation between the United States, Great Britain and Japan was not as sincere as it seemed. Although the United States was a solid supporter of the Washington Conference System, Great Britain and Japan didn’t always think in the same way. Their cooperation with the United States was nothing more than a smart strategy wielded to try to protect or even expand their established interests while not aggravating the United States.
Relation: 政治大學歷史學報, 36, 1-84
The Journal of History
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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